Wednesday, July 20, 2005

 

Some notes on Communication Skills

1.
基本人际关系技巧——成功的每日技巧

作者:德士特·耶格

推荐词

沟通、信任和诚实是建立人际关系和向人们表示关心的价值连城的基础。当你要建立一个胜利者的队伍时,它们绝对是关键因素。德士特·耶格的《基本人际关系技巧)通过简单和有效的方式,极有力地传授了这些基础知识。
——罗·豪茨
作家、南卡罗林那橄榄球队总教练

    你的新著作——(基本人际关系技巧),就如你一样,直截了当、简单易懂。
——理查·狄维士
安利公司创建人之一

    德士特·耶格是一个伟大的美国人伟大的导师和一个伟大的人。他帮助你,激发你,启迪你为自己的梦想兴奋起来,并追求它的实现。
——穗夫·汤姆斯
                                                             温迪斯国际快餐连锁店创建人

    毫无疑问,德士特所展示的首要技巧是他对人们不可思议的相信。当全世界都对我说“你做不到”的时候,他把相信的空气吹进我的心里。他给我的信息很简单:“多恩,你能做到。”他对我的相信是我的成功至关重要的因素。就我而言,这是德士特最重要的技巧。他信任人们。
——多恩·威尔逊
连锁经营企业家

    德士特是他所带来的信息的化身。(圣经)提醒我们,人们当中最伟大的人会成为你们的仆人。我的亲身经历告诉我,当谈到掌握人际关系技巧时,没有人比得上德士特,耶格。他的方法虽然简单,但非常深刻;虽然是普通常识,但并非人人都能做到。这本书会给予你力量,极大地改变你个人和生意上的人际关系。它将为你带来前所未有的财富!
——里斯·伯朗
作家、演说家

    我富有的父亲说:“如果你想做一名成功的生意人,人际关系是你最重要的技巧。”他还说:“如果你想在生意中成功,你应该不懈地学习和提高自己的人际关系技巧。”我很高兴能看到德士特的这本著作。因为说到人际关系技巧,德士特·耶格是一名大师。当我说这本书不可不读时,你确实不可不读。
——罗伯特·靖崎
畅销书《富爸爸,穷爸爸》的作者

    在过去的25年里,德土特·耶格一直是我最亲密的朋友之一。当我观察、仰慕德士特的时候,我对他了解人们的能力感到惊讶不已。我并不是说他花了多少时间与人们在一起,而是他对人们的真诚与关怀把人们吸引到他身边。对于德士特来说,这个世界没有“小”人物。他向人们传送对他们的信心,通过独一无二的方法使每个人感到自己与众不同。他把自己一流的沟通天赋发展到炉火纯青的地步。真的,德士特,你才是独的。  
——比利·柔利
福音传播机构总裁

德士特比我一生中见过的所有人都更热爱他的伙伴们,所以他取得如此高的成就,所以他能做到那些他已经做到的事情。
——比尔·贝瑞德
著名营销集团总裁

这是任何生意和人际关系获得成功的精髓。如果你实践这些至今为止被最完美地归纳到一本书上的这些技巧,并把它们内在化,你会赢得人们的!
——丹尼斯,韦特补
作家、高效能与个人成长权威

德士特对我们的亲身关怀总是深深地打动我们。他不像一个百万富翁走进来向我们发表“谈话”。同样值得钦佩的是,他所说的每一件事都是实实在在的原则。他从来不用深奥莫刻的词语来说话。他站在和我们同样的位置上,感受我们所感受的,然后用我们所能明白的方法与我们相处。
——多恩和露斯·斯托姆斯
营销集团总裁

德士特·耶格拥有惊人的能力处理复杂的问题,并把它们分解成人们容易明白的东西。这正是他在《基本人际关系技巧》里所做的。他简单直接的形式使你觉得,他正在面对面地与你交谈。这本书会给予你信心去建立新的人际关系和一个稳固的、胜利者的团队。
——加利·斯马利
著名家庭矢系演讲家、作家

我丈夫杰里和我感到如此幸运,因为我们的生命中有德士特和贝蒂。如果没有他们教育我们如何在婚姻中推崇对方,如何在我们的生意里推崇人们,如何吸收积极和摒弃消极,我简直不敢想象我们今天将是什么样子。德士特和贝蒂教会我们如何帮助人们解决生活中的问题。
——切丽·美杜斯
营销培训集团公司首席指导
 
前言
这是一本关于人以及如何更好地认识人的书。如果你能明白一些基本的东西,事情就不会太难。一旦你明白那些基本的东西,你就会明白人们做事情的方式,你就会提前知道人们在某种情况下会做出何种反应,你甚至会更明白自己。这个时候,你才会真正有技巧地与人们相处。

无论你的职业如何,生命的成功对每一个人都是重要的。如果你有良好的人际关系,生活便是快乐的。如果你与他人之间存在冲突与矛盾,生活就会很艰难。如果你不知道如何与人们相处,那么无论多少钱都不能使你快乐。
    
 人类本性中有一个显而易见的基本点——我们每一个人都有一个高于一切的关注点:我们自己。我们所做的和所想的大部分事情,都是以我们自己为中心的。无论出于自私还是出于慈善的目的,我们所做的事情都是为了能带来利益。我的亲身经历告诉我,即使那些全身心的奉献者,从奉献中所获得的利益也比接受者多得多。

所以,认识到人们全部所想和所做的事情,在某种程度上都是出自个人利益,这是至关重要的。我们天生如此,这也没有错。个人利益本身不是问题。你认为自己是什么样子,就决定了你的人生方向。朋友们,这一点才是关键的。
    
 你认为自己是什么样子,通常被称为你的个人形象。如果你认为自己很能干,很有价值,我们就会说你有一个良好的个人形象。如果你在潜意识里质疑自己的价值或达到你人生最重要目标的能力,那么你就会被不良的个人形象所困扰。
   
我们大部分人属于第二种类型。无论你的外表形象如何,你也许是一个收入可观的专业人士,身居豪宅,驾驶名车,但你依然可能被不良的个人形象所困扰。事实上,那也许是推动你取得现有成就的动力。但成就并不一定能改变你看待自己的方式。如果你不知道如何改变自己的思维,外界环境并不能真正帮助你。
  
所以,人类本性的基本点是:人们首先关心自己。无论人们外表如何,大多数人被不良的个人形象所困扰。实际上,改变你的想法就是要提升你对自己的评价。我不是说要自高自大、目中无人,使人们觉得他们自己很糟糕而使你感觉良好。那只是另一种不良的个人形象,而它会妨碍你建立良好健康的人际关系。如果你对自己有好的评价,你就会被其他人的成功所鼓舞,而不是被它威胁。你不会把自己与其他人相比较,而且你因为人们都是独一无二的个体而欣赏他们。
  
但真正伟大的是:当你能有技巧地帮助人们自我感觉良好时,他们的自我形象就会改善,你的形象也会改善。因为我们都是人。当我们共同努力的时候,我们都会变得更好。
 序
有一些人觉得我父亲是一个有争议的人物,也许这是因为他愿意直接地谈论大多数人回避的问题。另一些人则认为“争议”这个词最不能用在我父亲身上。这些人的生命深深地受德士特·耶格影响。当他们谈起他的时候,他们会满心喜悦。有些人谈起他的时候甚至会热泪盈眶。对于那些认识德士特的人来说,争议根本不存在。德士特了解人们。他理解他们,爱他们。所有认识他的人都坚信这一点。
    
事实上,在过去的30年里,他都改变了许多人的命运。他向成千上万的人传授了成功的方法,他们当中的许多人将他的话语牢记心中,并付诸行动。他将成功带到他们的生命里。
    
对原理的坚持、对人们执著的相信、对信仰的忠诚;一种独特的亲切和爱、一种实实存在的智慧,还有那双炯炯有神的、仿佛洞悉一切的蓝眼睛,都是人们谈起“德士特·耶格”时想到的。
    
     在我写这本书的时候。我明白,许多正在读这本书的人也许没那么幸运,未能亲自认识我的父亲。也许你们从磁带上或大型演讲会上听过他的演讲,也许你只是听说过他。不管什么原因使你拿起这本书,我希望你读完本书时能了解他多一点,因为德士特对人的了解和与人相处的方法,会大大改变你的一生。
   
他不仅养育了我们7个孩子,在过去30年里,他还在全世界培养了许许多多坚强的领导人。这些领导人像他一样爱人们;他们拥有财务自由,在心灵上和道德上都有能力迎接这个世界给他们的挑战。这些领尊人培养了其他领导人,并周而复始地循环下去。
   
我的希望是,这本书能够给予你了解人和与人相处的实践知识,从而为你带来巨大的个人成功。正如我父亲所说: “成功是对一个有价值的梦想的逐步实现的过程。”成功远远不止是金钱,它与人际关系息息相关。如果没有强大、愉快、丰富的人际关系,世界上所有金钱都不足以缓解痛苦。
多尔·耶格
第一章:有技巧地与人们交谈
由于人类本性是关注个人利益,所以你可以猜猜,每个人最喜欢的话题是什么?当然,那就是他自己了。这真是个好消息,因为它意味着你不必成为一个天才交谈者才能使人们对你着迷,你只要记住一件事情:和他们谈关于他们的事情。

如果你和人们谈他们自己、他们的家人、他们的工作、他们的消遣以及他们所关心的事情,他们马上就会尊重你。你对他们发自内心的兴趣是对他们的欣赏。那会提升他们的自尊心,反过来会使他们尊重你。如果你太多谈论自己的事情,而不是他们的事情,情况就会截然相反。那会告诉他们,你对他们并没有什么兴趣。这就会使他们的自尊心下降,而他们对你的尊敬也因此下降。因此,当你与人们交谈的时候,最好问那些能引导他们谈论他们自己的问题。

我用一个首写字母的缩略词,FORM,来帮助我自己记住应该问哪些问题。
“F”提醒我要问关于他们家人的问题。(英文单词family意思是家人——译者注)
例如: \
“约翰,你结婚了吗?你的孩子多大了?”
“你女儿现在情况怎样了?”
“你妻子喜欢那次旅行吗?”
“你母亲的关节炎最近好点了吗?”
   
 “o”提醒我要问他们的职业或工作。 (英文单词occupation意思是职业——译者注)
例如:
“约翰,你是干哪一行的?”
“最近工作如何?”
“我听说你最近荣升了啊!”
“你什么时候开始工作的?”

“R”提醒我要问他们喜欢哪些娱乐活动。(英文单词recreation意思是娱乐——译者注)
例如:
“约翰,你下班后一般喜欢做些什么呢?”
“你喜欢去哪里钓鱼呢?”
“我听说你是个高尔夫高手。”
“多棒的跑车啊!你喜欢吗?”

“M”提醒我要问他们,金钱与他们的梦想有什么联系。(英文单词money意思是金钱——译者注)
例如:
“我想我有一个方法能帮助你得到你一直想要的东西。”
“我知道你很喜欢旅行。如果不缺钱,你最想去咖里旅行呢?”
“如果不再需要金钱的问题,那该多好啊!”

有时候我把M当作传递一个信息,有时候则不会。我喜欢FORM这种方式,因为它给了我一些不容易忘记的谈话要点。它能帮助我引导人们去谈到他们自己。由于我真的想知道他们的事情,所以我会仔细倾听。我们大部分人不会与别人相处,因为我们总是忙着考虑自己、谈论自己。当你开始将注意力从自己身上转移到人们身上,你会惊奇地发现自己是多么地善于与人相处。
   
作为一个练习,在以后的谈话里,你要越来越少使用“我、我的”这些字眼,而要越来越多使用“你、你的”这些字眼。你会发现自己与人相处的技巧突飞猛进。

第二章:与人相处的基本技巧
外面的世界很精彩。身处这个世界你很容易产生自已一无是处的感觉。你回到家,感到疲惫,心情烦躁,完全没有意识到你所缺少的、使生命有意义的要素:尊重。

尊重每一个人
在一个人的意识里,明白人是一份资产,这是至关重要的。但他人不应该成为达到某个目的的工具。尊重每一个生命个体的重要性,是所有有效人际关系技巧的基础。

这里有一些表现尊重的技巧:

1.学会倾听。
这样表示你关心人们,人们可以信任你。信任由尊敬开始。你不仅要用耳朵倾听,还要用眼睛“倾听”。

2.不要打断人们的谈话。
打断别人的谈话不仅不礼貌,而且是不尊重别人的表现。并且,被你打断谈话的人听不到你在说什么。要

练习专注地倾听。

3.问他们感兴趣的问题。
如果你对人们感兴趣,而向他们提问题,他们会觉得很荣幸。要花点时间问人们感兴趣的问题,然后倾听他们的回答。

4.清晰、友好地交谈。
与人交谈时你的语音语调通常比你说的内容更重要,不要太僵硬或者太正式。当你和人们谈话时,要微笑。

以最佳外表出现
给别人留下第一印象,大约需要10秒钟左右的时间。而这个第一印象很大一部分来自你的外表。遵循这些经验之谈,保持最佳外表就会成为你的日常习惯。

1.杜绝衣冠不整。
我们的生意不只是通过见面将合作方案表达清楚就能做到的。你看起来一定要干净整洁,并做好随时与人们见面的准备。不管在哪里,只要是与人交往,你都要保持干净利落、平易近人。整洁的服装是一份可靠的介绍信。

2.整理好自己的心情与仪表。
你要完全忘记自己,并专注于他人。然而,如果你为自己的外表担心,你是做不到这一点的。最重要的事情是,永远保持干净整齐。如果人们不想与你接触,你所有的人际关系技巧都会作废。

提升人们:推崇的力量
你甚至可以在《圣经》里找到推崇的效果。它意味着提升。加强与支持。推崇比其他原则更能使你在与人相处方面获得成功。这里有几种推崇人们的有效方法。

1.当你与陌生人见面时,要看着对方的眼睛,并对他们微笑。微笑是两个人之间最短的距离。当你看着某人的眼睛时,意味着告诉他:你很好,你很喜欢他,你们可以成为朋友、接着,你要立即喊出他的名字,并问一些关于他私人的问题。一边和他结交成为朋友,一边放松自己。

2.养成好的握手习惯,并经常使用它!
一个温暖的、坚定自信、但不咄咄逼人的握手充分表明了你的真诚与坦率。一个真诚的握手可以从拇指至食指之间的地方一直穿透到心里。它坚定,但不要“碾碎”别人的骨头,也不要握得太久。

3.留意沟通礼仪,特别是电子通讯礼仪。
当你使用电话、语音信箱和电子邮件时,尤其要注意你的态度,不能失去人情味,失去热情与尊重。请记住,你所建立的不仅仅是生意,你正在建立人际关系。打电话时,要注意语气愉快和表达清晰。先说出自己的全名,然后问对方:“我现在打电话给你方便吗?”重要的是,尽快回复对方的电话、语音留言或电子邮件。任何时候都要温暖和亲切地对待别人,即使你给人们留言的时候也一样。

4.最真诚的慷慨就是欣赏
如果你专注于人们的长处,他们就会更强。如果你为他们的长处鼓掌,就会增加他们的信心,这样也可以帮助他们克服自己的弱点。如果你以积极的态度看待人们,你的真诚就会通过你的眼睛、微笑和语调表现出来。你的笑容能照亮所有看到它的人。

5.记住并使用人们的名字。
简单的事情,比方记住人们的名字,并注意到他们身上一些特殊的事情,可以使人们一整天很开心。如果你发现自己很难记住人们的名字,就要在人们身上找到最正面的特征,把它图像化,然后再牢牢地记在脑海里。

6.保持你的财务信用完好无损。
要明白,良好的人际关系是建立在健康的财务交往的基础上的。财务信用是自尊心的一个重要部分。通常大多数人是没有财务顾问的。我的许多生意伙伴,尽管他们现在已经是百万富翁了,但他们仍然定期寻求我的咨询意见。

7.理解并欣赏人们的性格差异。
世界上心与心之间的路最难走,惟有艰难才显出理解的宝贵。所以,你越理解他人,你就会越快乐。如果你明白到每个人都是特别的,你就会有一个坚实基础来提高自己的人际关系技巧,建立一个成功的人际关系网络。·有一些很好的书讲解人的不同性格,例如罗伯特·罗姆的书《积极性格图解》。如果你运用自己学到的知识,你就会发现自己在认识人的方面越来越成为专家。

赢得其他人的尊敬
你也许在想: “我也知道,按照你所说的所有方法向每个人表示尊敬是一件好事。但我如何得到别人对我的尊敬呢?”你可以这样做:永远尊重别人。
    
 我发现,你越尊重别人,别人就越尊重你。你对自己的尊重会为你赢得你所认识的人的尊重,并且希望有一天赢得成千上万能认识你的人的尊重。要做到在各方面都按最高标准来尊重自己和尊重别人。

自我尊重是最底线
如果你不尊重自己,你就不会尊重其他任何人。以下是增进自尊心的方法。
在对你真正重要的方面为自己订立目标。个人的成功是建立自尊的关键。为自己选择一个目标,承诺要完成它,然后付诸行动,这是至关重要的。
每迈出小小的一步,都会对你的自我看法造成大的影响。在一个你还没有尝试过的新领域订下目标,做一些你一直忽略的重要的事情。当你开始尊重自己时,用别人应该得到的待遇去对待人们就很容易了,是成功开始的地方。
 第三章:与新客户相处的技巧
企业的利益来自客户资源的保持以及不断的拓展,赢得新客户是企业拓展客户必备的基础。世界上只有两种人:你认识的人和你不认识的人。他们每个人都有自己的梦想。和你一样,他们也想获得成功,但他们还没有与你有生意上的合作。这就使他们有可能成为你的新客户。

   要知道你的手中把握着什么。你有一个能为每一个坚持不懈使用它的人创造财富的工具。
新客户只是那些还不知道你的企业形象、现实实力、发展蓝图、行业地位、产品竞争优势的人。但他们有些人是想知道那些事情的。你的角色就是找出那些人是谁,并与他们分享信息,从而使他们体会到与企业合作的现实利益和未来前景。
   那么,你如何有技巧地应付新客户呢?

与你认识的新客户交往
首先,在你的领导人帮助下掌握一些如何与朋友和家人交谈的方法。那些已经认识你的人也许很难产生和你一起做生意的信任。那是很正常的。你必须把他们的好奇心激发起来并提出许多问题,然后陪同他们去找到他们需要的权威人士。

1.做你自己——只是更兴奋一点。
人们总是被有目标和方向的人所吸引。热情是一块磁石。它来自于你对你自己可以提供的东西的价值以及对它的信心。那意味着你决不催促或迫使别人。即使你的朋友在开始时还没准备好,也不要对他们失去希望。要保持好人际关系,并看准“适当的时机”。

2.不要拖延——否则你就会后悔!
要有做生意的迅速、执著,绝对不要造成最好的客户被别人拉走的遗憾。与那些已经很成功、你以为不会加入你的生意的人都谈一谈。记住:他们通常是最好的潜在伙伴。

3.如果你不是专家,效果会更好。
与其直接告诉人们一些信息,不如引用第三方说的话,这样人们会更快地相信你。每次你引用能给你生意有力支持的人们说的话,你就建立起了那个人在客户心目中的权威性,并引发了他们的好奇心。这样就更容易安排他们与那个人见面。而对自己的事业,对自己的市场饱有坚定信念的权威人士会有力地感染客户,使整个价值链被激活,并帮助他们走出下一步。最好不要自己做专家。

与你不认识的新客户交往
陌生人只是你还没认识的朋友,你在他们心目中只是一张白纸。你可以从一个全新的起点开始。你创造了此时此刻他们的所见所闻。然而,你怎样才能有技巧地做到这些事情呢?

1.永远保持友好。
正如你以前的生活那样,大多数人都在寻找他们的幸运一刻,希望能找到一扇通往更好生活的大门。一开始就要问候人们,并保持友好的态度,努力培养永远温和地对待人们的态度。礼仪越周到,运气、也越好。

2.使问候人们成为你的生活的一部分,但要尊重他人的私人空间。
如果你学会经常问候人们,要与他们交谈将不是难事。而尊重他们的私人空间将使他们觉得你是尊重他们的。

3.向已经获得生意成功的领导人学习具体的接触学习人际关系技巧最好的方法,是与已经掌握这些技巧的人交往。尽可能经常地与领导人在一起,观察他们如何与人交往。当他们在聚会结束或在餐厅与陌生人交谈时,要细心倾听他们说话。

4.你所需要的只是练习。
通往卓越的道路是与好的导师一起工作,学习他们的技巧,然后进行练习,直到它们成为你的第二本性。要注意不要在一开始就进行生意谈话,而只是向人们打招呼和设法得到他们的名字。如果可以,要养成一种习惯,经常去相同的地方,以便建立人际关系。你可以通过学习、咨询得到具体的方法。如果你能得到人们的名字和工作单位,要赶快写下来,或者与他们交换名片,努力积累客户资源。

最重要的事情是,享受与人们在一起的乐趣。问候他们,进行轻松的谈话。如果谈话向着生意方向发展,不要说自己,而是要谈生意里的权威人士。

它是简单的。你们只需要多多练习。

以下问题,每一个选择“是”的框内都要给自己打1分。
选 项 是 否
1.当我与人们谈到生意时,我很兴奋且真诚。        
2.我没有拖延.我行动力很强市场是做出来的.        
3.我没尝试把自己当专家,相反,我推崇专家!        
4.我总是友好地对待刚见面的人。        
5.我理解并尊重人们的私人空间。        
6.我正向领导人学习与人们接触的具体方法。        
7.我在前线观察过领导人如何与人们交往。        
8.我正学习在日常生活中很轻松地与人们交谈        
9.不管去哪里我都能很自然地与人们打招呼并问候他们        
10.我不停地练习与人们交谈和接触的技巧。        

评分:
得分8分一10分你做得非常好!请记住,这些原理在所有情况下都适用。
得分5分一7分你做得还可以!请再读一次本章和第一章。
得分2分一4分继续在人际关系技巧上努力!请再读一次本章和第一章。
得分0分一1分向你的导师请教吧!
第四章 与生意伙伴交往的技巧
即使我第一次为新客户讲解生意方案的时候,我也不把他们看作是“生意对象”,也就是他们站在篱笆的另一边,而我站在这边。我很早就发现这种思维模式对人们没有效果。当人们对生意合作方案感兴趣的时候,我们就已经站在篱笆的同一边了。我们双方都在寻找更美好的生活,我们已经是一个团队。我和他们交谈,要让他们觉得他们已经是合伙人了。我经常把他们看做是生意拥有者。这种对待人们的方式是很重要的。它消除了恐惧,并将友谊注入其中。

建立一个强大的团队

1.从友谊开始。
除非你首先建立友谊,否则你无法帮助生意合作伙伴成功。而那种友谊从你第一次讨论合作的时候就开始了。如果你真诚地对人们感兴趣,有爱心,他们会感觉到的。如果他们只不过是你实现经营利润的踏脚石,他们对你是无动于衷的,不管你的生意有多大。不要太着急讲解事实与数字,要相互认识一下,然后根据你所掌握的信息来讲解合作方案。

你与每一个人的相识都是一次新的经历。与你倾心交谈的每一个人都有不同的梦想。所以,使合作方案个性化是很重要的。记住,人们最关心的是他们自己,而不是你。让他们成为关注的中心,向他们展示生意将如何帮助他们得到他们在生命中真正想得到。的东西。除非事实与数字能带给人“我在其中能得到什么”的启示,否则它们毫无用处。

2.建立坚实的人际关系。
生意的合作是自愿的。它必须被选择。大部分人去工作,是因为他们有许多账单要支付。他们的工作是迫不得已的,大多数人即使想不工作也不行。但是,生意不同合作。如果人们觉得没有得到欣赏或被冒犯,他们可以退出。

生意伙伴关系是建立在坚实的人际关系基础上的。与某个相信你的人之间的真诚关系能够使人们在收入不多的时候坚持下去,直到收入越来越多。

在人际关系中,人们总是会在内心问三个问题:
我能相信你吗?
你是否承诺做到卓越?
你关心我吗?

不管你是否意识到这一点,当你与人们相处的时候,你所说的话或所做的事会回答其中的一个问题。

3.如果你同意对方的看法,说出来;如果你不同意对方的看法,别说出来。
我们每个人都会对事情有自己的看法。我们喜欢自己是正确的。这种感觉很好。所以,每当你同意对方的看法时,要让他们知道。然而,你迟早会遇到自己不同意的事情。但不同意并不能改变任何人的想法。除了改变人际关系的好坏程度,不同意改变不了任何事情,它会使人际关系更脆弱。

在我经营生意的这些年里,我的道歉很可能比我做的其他任何事情都要多!即使我无须为任何事情道歉。然而,如果人们有了不愉快的经历,我还是觉得抱歉。如果一份道歉有帮助,我总是很乐意向别人道歉。如果你宁愿自己正确,那么你就不会富有,至少在现在的生意里不会富有。你可以说,“我完全同意”、“你非常正确”、“一点儿没错”,等等。如果人们因为某件事情而生气或失望,即使你无需为此负责任,也请你不要吝啬为此道歉,因为它会使这种情况或者这个人的怒气消—解。

4.成为一个鼓励者。
鼓励是每个人任何时候都需要的,而每个成功者都具有一种给予他人鼓励的能力。拥有最大团队的领导人是最大的鼓励者。只有当你经历过细小的成功;你才会开始相信自己。当你开始相信自己时,你就会开始相信他人。这就是鼓励。它指有勇气去追求自己想要的东西,并且将同样的勇气在别人身上激发出来。

当你发现有人是鼓励者时,要尽可能多地接近他们。观察他们如何与人交往,听他们如何说话。你也可以坚持每天听一盒鼓励者的演讲磁带,或者参加一些生意聚会,最好参加一些大型的培训活动,这或许可以带来意想不到的效果。

5.避免消极思想。永远不要打击他人。
我们越关注我们的长处,我们就会变得越强大,即使在我们的弱项上也是如此。这就是积极思维的神奇力量,它可以使你建立信心。你越早完全放弃批评,你在经营生意里成长就会越快。

提升人们是你要掌握的一个重要技巧。在商业社会或其他环境里,你很难学到这个技巧。关键是决不允许自己批评他人,即使“建设性”地批评他人也不行。要学会在人们的长处上提升他们,和他们谈论他们的长处,把握每一次机会去加强这些长处!

6.永远赞扬他人。
赞扬是鼓励的一部分。你给予他人的每个赞扬的价值比你可能知道的还要大。积极指出人们的长处,无论它多么细小。如果你希望人们做某件事情,请称赞他们已经在做的事情。接着要表达你对他们以及他们的能力的相信,强调你在他们身上看到的长处。然后,提出使他们的生意更快发展的下一步建议。

7.相信你团队里的人。
当你建立自己的团队时,你的团队中的每一个人对你来说都是特别重要的。他们有些能融人你的个人计划里,有些则不会。而你对他们的信任是使他们坚持下去的燃料。不要指望从他们的行动或承诺中得到激励;相反,要用自己的行动或承诺激励他们,要做出榜样。即使他们不积极,也要相信他们的梦想,相信他们的潜力。只要坚持相信他们,他们就会做到。要记住,在每一个生命里,成功都有自已的时机。坚持相信他们,然后你就可以看到胜利者取得胜利。

以下问题,每一个选择“是”的都要给自已打一分。
选 项 是   否
1.当我向人们讲解计划的时候,我把他们当做是自己团队的一员。        
2.我花一点时间与新客户相互认识,与他们分享我和我家人的一些事情。        
3.我明白人们总是在潜意识里问我3个问题。我会尽一切努力用行动来回答他们。        
4.我抓住每个机会来赞同人们。        
5.当我与他人有不同看法时,我几乎不说出来。        
6.我明白道歉的力量。每当需要的时候,我都很乐意道歉。        
7.我正在成为一个鼓励者。我激发人们相信自己。        
8.我不批评别人,即使“有建设性”地批评也不。        
9.我总是指出人们身上积极的方面,并强调他们的长处。        
10.我以身作则。我做我希望别人做的事情。        
11.我相信人们身上的潜力,尽管它还没有表现出来。        
12.我知道成功有它的时机,我永远不会放弃任何人。

得分10分~12分你做得非常好!记住,这些原理在每种情况下都适用。
得分6分一9分你做得还可以!请再读一次本章和第一章。
得分3分一5分继续在人际关系技巧上花工夫!重新阅读本章和第一、二章。
得分0分一2分向你的导师请教吧!
第五章:使人们觉得自己是重要的
每个人都希望自己是重要人物。事实上,大家愿意做所有事情,无论是好事还是坏事,只要能得到自己是重要的感觉。由于我们许多人有不良的个人形象,重塑自我这个需要是非常巨大的。 
   这里有一点你需要记住:你越使人们觉得他们重要和特殊,他们就越会对你做出反应。
那么,你怎样才能使人们觉得他们特殊呢?这里有一些技巧:

1.聆听他们。
这听起来很简单,而它也确实很简单,如果你认真对待的话。如果你是假装的,它就是世界上最难的事情。抛开关于自我的想法,聆听他们对你说的话。

2.尽可能多地使用他们的名字。
有人说,人的耳朵最喜欢的声音是他们自己名字的发音。我想那是真的。这是属于他们自己的独一无二的—声音。如果你经常使用它,那意味着你真的关心他们,那会使他们觉得自己是珍贵的。

3.称赞并认可他们的成就。
这不必是什么重大的事情,小事情也可以。你可以说: “有一天我路过你们家花园,你种的花草长得多好啊。”这句话也很有效。或者说:“你的领带很好看,与这套西装搭配得很好!”注意到并说出人们的独特之处能够使人们觉得与众不同。
 
 4.当有人问你问题的时候,停一会儿再回答。这使他们的问题看起来很重要,因为它意味着你花时间思考他们提出的问题。

5.如果有人等着与你见面,一定要向他们打招呼。
千万不要忽视等着与你见面的人,即使你只会意地看他们一眼,并让他们知道你很快就会到他们那里去。这将使他们觉得你很在意他们。
 
6.当你在团队坐的时候,要关心每一个人。
要记住,任何团队实际上都是由单个的、需要被认可和被欣赏的人组成的。当你向一个团队讲话的时候,你要看着每一个人,向他们说话,让他们知道你觉得他们是重要的。
第六章:赞同人们
如果你没有学会赞同人们的艺术,你很可能不能掌握与人相处的艺术。 
有时候,人们会将不赞同与坦诚混淆起来。你也许听过有人形容一次冲突说: “我只是想坦诚地对待他们!”那只是因为他们还没学会如何在赞同别人的时候保持坦诚。 

生命中最重要的事情之一是学会赞同人们的简单艺术。任何人都可能提出自己的观点,并引起别人的反对。只有聪明人才会赞同别人,即使你觉得对方有错。只有学会找到与他人的共同点,才能创造和谐。原则是这样的:比起那些不赞同自己的人,人们更喜欢赞同自己的人。
 
想一想自己吧。当有人不赞同你的时候,你感觉如何?很不自在,是吧?无论你如何对待它,它都不会使你舒服。因为,不赞同人们并不能使人们感觉舒服。
 
在掌握赞同别人的艺术的过程中,你只需要记住几件事情:
1.培养赞同人们的态度。
练习与周围的人和睦相处,把它看做一个游戏。在交通堵塞时,驾驶员试着与周围的人们打招呼,也就是说你要尝试去适应周围的环境,而不要总是与它对抗。
 
2.如果你赞同人们,要让人们知道。
不要只是默默地赞同人们。如果你喜欢他们说的话,要点头说“对”或者“没错”。要尽可能多地肯定他人说的话。
  
 3.除非绝对有必要,否则不要告诉人们你不同意。
 如果你不赞同人们说的话,不要说出来。除非有关问题很重要,否则不要反对他人的观点。

4.学习尽快道歉。
每当你错了,或者要对一件做错的事情负责任,应尽快道歉,尽快承认自己的错误。因为许多人有不良的个人形象,他们通常想掩饰自己的错误或为自己找借口。如果你不掩饰自己的错误,人们会因此而敬佩你。

5.绝对不要争辩。
不管你是否正确,争辩只是自我失败。争辩中任何人都不会赢,而损失可能会更多。
偶尔,你会遇见只是想和你争论的人。最好的技巧就是毫无争辩地让他们说出要说的话。只有一方的战争是很难打的。 

第七章:聆听人们
人们喜欢聆听他们的人。这是简单的原则,但它是很重要的。我们都有相同的感觉。试想一下,如果我们最关心的是自己,而我们的个人形象又不太好,若有人愿意花时间来聆听我们,这种感觉不是很好吗? 聆听是使自己受人欢迎的最基本的技巧。一个好的聆听者在任何时候都比一个好的谈话者更受人欢迎。我自己并不那么善于言辞。我年轻的时候,每次我想在人们面前说话都会结结巴巴。但我一直是一个好的聆听者。我发现,人们被聆听的需要远远大于聆听别人的需要。如果我让他们说话,那正是他们需要做的事情,而他们就会因此而喜欢我。 
因此,学会聆听是一个重要的人际关系技巧。记住,要更多地使用“你”和“你的”这些字眼,避免说“我”和“我的”,要专注于他人身上。这里有三条使你成为一个好的聆听者的经验之谈:

1.用眼睛聆听。
要看着正在说话的人,用眼睛做出反应,即使你一言不发。你的眼睛表现出你是否真的是在聆听。

2.问对方感兴趣的问题。
如果你真正聆听,问题就会自然进入你的思想中。如果你关心人们说的话,并为此而提出问题,那是对他们的赞美。所以,提出来吧。

3.不要打断别人的说话或改变话题。
即使你迫切地想谈其他事情,也不要着急。认真地聆听别人,直到他们说完。任何打断别人说话或突然改变话题的情况,都使说话者觉得是一种羞辱,即使他们似乎没留意。

如果你真正关心人们,聆听不是难事。聆听的关键是关心。随着你关心更多的人,你就会发现自己更多时候是在聆听,而不是说话。这不会是被迫的。它将成为关心和礼貌的一部分。
事实上,大多数人际关系技巧就是关心和礼貌的实际运作。
第八章说服人们
在你小的时候,你也许听过这个故事: 北风与太阳打赌说,它可以吹掉一个人的大衣。太阳答应和它打这个赌。于是北风使劲地吹啊吹,而那个人更用力地将大衣裹在自己身上。不管北风刮得多猛烈,它只能使那个人将大衣裹得更紧。最后,北风放弃了。太阳说:“我知道该怎么做。”太阳开始将温暖的阳光洒在那个人身上。几分钟后,那个人慢慢松开了大衣。接着,太阳更温暖地照耀着这个人。最后,那个人 将大衣完全脱掉。凭着自己的温暖,太阳很快做到了北风竭尽全力也做不到的事情。
原则是这样的:说服人们最容易的方法是帮助他们得到他们想要的东西。

你也许会说:“那,究竟是谁说服谁啊?”我非常高兴你这样问。事实上,如果你不问这个问题,你很可能正在做着错误的说服!大多数情况下,我们将人际关系看做非输即赢。如果你这样看待人际关系,你就是那个输的人!你永远不会得到真正的成功。成功的人际关系并不是非输即赢的关系。
 
人际关系技巧的大师们并不想“战胜”任何人。他们知道,当谈到人际关系时, “战胜”实际上等于“失败”。相反,他们会找到人们需要什么或想要什么,然后他们鼓励人们去追求这些东西。
 
不管你多么能说会道,不管你有多少事实与数字支持自己的观点,如果人们不想做某件事情,你是无论如何也说服不了他们的。所以,说服人们实际上是一个找到人们喜欢什么、需要什么、想要什么的过程。

这是否意味着一个非常棒的产品或一个美妙的生意计划不能说服人们做任何事情呢?没错!不管你能为人们提供什么,不管你觉得它有多么好,人们关心的只是你的产品和生意计划能带给他们多少他们想要的东西。
 
所以,除非你已经发现他们认为什么是好的,否则不要告诉人们你觉得什么是好的。一旦你已经进入他们的目标和价值观,你就能够说服他们了。请注意,在那个故事里,太阳和那个人双方都同意,是时候,可以脱掉大衣了。 
 
    赞同也是说服。征服,口若悬河,操纵人们,这些都不是说服。它们只是控制人们的不同方法。说服人们就是与人们想要的东西达成一致意见,然后帮助他们找到得到这些东西的方法。这样,所有人都可以赢。如果不是每个人都赢,就没有人赢。

以下是找到人们想要的东西的几点提示:

1.关注他们的肢体语言。
 当人们谈到自己想要的东西时,他们会以某种特殊方式“明亮”起来。他们似乎变得更有能力。更有活力。当这种情况发生时,隐含的信息就会明朗起来。

2.留意他们的用词。
当他们说“问题在于……”这些话语的时候,他们正在告诉你他们有一种需要。例如,如果他们说: “问题是我们没有时间做其他事情”,那么他们正在告诉你,他们需要给自己更多的时间。当有人说:“我真希望我可以…”.”的时候,他正在表现出一种需要。你就应将谈话转到那个方向去。

3.注意看人们之间的相互反应。
当你和一对夫妇交谈时,要注意他们给予对方评论。你经常可以在他们简短的交谈中发现他们想要什么。例如,“你已经工作很长时间了”,这意味着需要花更多的时间呆在家里。又如, “我们从来没去过你答应我要去的英国”,这告诉你有一个旅行的愿望没有实现。

4.品味他们的埋怨。
每一个埋怨的背后都隐藏着一个秘密的渴望。如果你能学会将人们的消极话语翻译成它所对应的积极话语,你就会知道人们想要什么,而知道人们想要什么是说服他们的金钥匙!

第九章获得人们的信任
如果人们觉得你对他们说的话是为了自己的好处,那么他们抗拒你就会很自然了。但你可以通过间接的而不是直接的用语来避免这种人类天性的怀疑。

我的意思是,你最好引用别人的话语,而不是直接说出自己的想法。
获得人们信任的最好方法是引用别人的话!不管你引用的那个人在你身边,还是远在千里之外,都没关系。别人说的话比你能说的所有话都更有分里。

比方说,如果有人问你某个产品的质量,你可以说: “我公司的一个同事说她对这个产品的效果感到惊讶。她说这个产品简直是一个奇迹!”
 
那个回答比你自己所做的任何声明都更加有效,因为它把除你以外的另一个人带进谈话当中。突然间,另一个人,而不是你,做出这样的声明——对这个产品的效果感到惊讶。
引用别人的话就像是一个神奇的法术。不管你同意与否,人们最在意的就是“别人会怎样想”。当你引用别人说的话的时候,就满足了人们的这种需要。当交谈结束的时候,这样做为你带来的威信比自己为自己辩护大得多。

所以,当人们问起关于你的产品或服务的问题时,你能给他们的最有说服力的回答总是来自别人。这很奇怪,但人们很少怀疑第三方说的话;而如果你直接回答的话,他们会自动产生质疑。原则是这样的:通过第三方来回答。引用人们的话,利用他们的威信,而不是你自己的。
第十章帮助人们做决定
对于许多人来说,做决定并不是简单的事情。那意味着改变,而改变会使人们焦虑。大多数人在一生中只做出几个重要决定,而他们最害怕的事情,就是做了一个错误的决定。

所以,重要的人际关系技巧之一就是学会如何帮助人们消除犹豫,做出改善他们生活的决定。原则是这样的:如果你能帮助人们做出小的决定,大的决定自然会自己产生。 

    大决定总是由小决定组成的,而做出小决定并没有做出大决定那么难。所以,通过帮助人们在正确的方向上做出小决定,比让他们做出大决定更为简单。因此,无论你想他们做什么事情,都要将决定分解成为许多易于接受的碎片。 
 
如果你想让他们和你一起参加一个生意聚会,首先问他们一个小问题。例如说,将某个晚上腾出来,你可以问: “比尔,你和莎丽星期四晚上除了看电视,还有什么要做的吗?”现在,比尔就要做一个小决定了。他要决定星期四晚上做一些什么重要的事情,或者看看你想让他参加的活动。 
 
然后问他们第二个问题: “如果不扰乱你平常的安排,你想不想多赚点钱呢?”那是另一个小决定。想还是不想?如果他说想,那么再给他一个选择。“星期四晚上和我们一起参加一个电子商务生意聚会如何?” 明白我的意思了吗?做小决定比做大决定简单。所以,要引导人们一小步一小步地前进,这样他们在一路上就会很顺利。 

这里有帮助人们渡过做决定这个难关的几点提示:
  
1、问只能答“是的”的问题。 
    当你帮助人们做决定的时候,在这个过程中,问一些你确信只能回答“是的”的小问题。
例如, “如果可以在没有财务负担的情况下旅游,而且想去多久就多久,你希望这样吗?”
“如果每天早上醒来的时候,都是无债一身轻,你会心情愉快吗?”
“看来,问题的关键是,你们想不想参与这个利润循环?”
如果你在一路上都问这些“是的”的问题,逻辑与情感的通道就会变得很清晰,而结论也非常简单和明确。它再也不是什么“大决定”了。 
 
2.谈谈他们说“是的”的理由。 
他们需要听到的,不是我的理由,而是他们的理由。所以,说出在他们看来为什么如此的理由,可以帮助他们做决定。
“乔治,这样可以帮助你得到你梦寐以求的跑车。”
“莎丽,你可以利用你作为形象顾问的天赋去赚比现在多一倍的收入,而且时间由你安排。”
“你的老板不会因为你五年前做的事情而继续付你薪金。但在我们的生意合作中,你就可以提前退休,并且凭着你已经做到的事情而得到每年都增加的收入。”
 
3.给他们两个只能回答“是的”的选择。 
如果你帮助人们做出小决定,你最好给他们两个都只能回答“是的”的选择,而不是一个“是的”、一个“不是”的选择。比方说,你要约他们坐下来谈生意。你最好说:“比尔,你希望我们在星期二见面还是在星期四见面呢?”而不要说:“你星期四晚上有时间和我们见一下面吗?”

还有另一个例子: “鲍伯,对于可以轻轻松松购物和今生今世有一个稳定的保障这两个方面,你对哪个更感兴趣呢?” 
 
4.期望他们说“是的”,并让他们知道你这样想。 
当你对自己向人们提供的东西的价值充满信心的时候,如果他们拒绝你,你会觉得很吃惊。事实上,如果他们拒绝你,你也许要问一下自己,你是否对你所说的事情的真实性有充分把握。

人们喜欢被自信的人引导,而自信的人会期望他们说“是的”。如果你犹豫不决,或者你觉得一个“不” 也许就要来到,人们就会怀疑你,他们也许会说他们要“考虑一下”。当他们这样说的时候,他们真正的意思是:“你自己也对此不是非常肯定。也许我需要再考虑一下。”

所以,当你引导人们做出小决定的时候,你要期望每一步都是“是的”。如果他们说“不”,你要表现出真心的惊奇,并问他们为什么。 
 
5.如果人们有合情合理的障碍,帮助人们克服它。 
    有时候,人们无法做到自己想做的事情,他们的思路阻塞了。他们认为他们没有足够的金钱、时间或者自信等条件,去做好生意。 

判断这些障碍是合情合理的还是一个烟雾弹,非常一重要。如果那并不是一个真正的障碍,而只是一种委婉的拒绝,就没有必要继续下去。你可以通过问一个问题来做出准确判断: “约翰,如果我们能找到方法克服这些困难,你愿不愿意开始呢?或者,还有其他原因吗?” 
 
如果他说“愿意”,你就知道他需要帮助。这时候,你的回答是否充满自信,很关键。
“约翰,我并不担心这个问题,因为我所认识的遇一到相同困难的人,如今都成功了。稍后我会介绍你认识他们的。既然他们能做到,那么你也做得到。我会帮助你的。在你、我、还有我们在这个生意中的所有伙伴之间,我们肯定能想出克服这些困难的办法。” 
 
要学会自信地引导人们做出小决定。在这一路上,大决定会自然而然地做出。
第十一章设定人们的情绪
如果你理解一条宇宙的规律,使人们立即喜欢你是非常简单的事情。如果你记住这条规律,并在每一次与别人交往开始时就使用它,十有八九的人会在一瞬间变得有礼貌、合作而且友好。 
    
那条规律是这样的:人们通常会跟随别人的情绪和举止的基调来做出反应。

一开始就与别人进行眼神交流,这是非常重要的。在你说任何话之前,都要给对方一个真挚诚恳的微笑。这个动作清晰地表达了一种温暖。世界上的每一种文化和每一个民族都能明白这一点。一个微笑意味着: “你好,很高兴能见到你。”微笑无须成本,却创造许多价值。

通过一个亲切的微笑,你一言不发就能为一个人际关系定下基调。人们会怎样做呢?十有八九的人会立即给予微笑作回应,他们会马上轻松下来,他们会立即喜欢上你。人们说不出为什么,但他们确实会这样做。

无论什么时候,如果你与人们相处,你一定要建立一种气氛。重要的是,要学会由自己来定下气氛的基调。别指望别人做这件事情,你要自己做。定下气氛的基调的人将决定人际关系的质量。

如果当你们见面的时候,对方的心情已经很不好了,那怎么办呢?没关系的。虽然他们的心情已经互不好了,但并没有太多的人存心想一直保持不好的心情。也许他们对一个糟糕的事情做出了不良反应,你创造的积极氛围会给予他们一个提升情绪的力量。

把这句话写下来,并牢牢记住:时刻保持积极心态的人,就是赢得人际关系的人。

遗憾的是,太多的人没能理解这个原则。他们似乎意识不到,他们给予别人什么,别人最终会还给他们什么。如果你给予温暖,你就会得到温暖;你给予冷漠,你就会得到冷漠。
 
一个重要的要素就是时机。我必须在打破沉默之前微笑,而不是之后,你的微笑是带来阳光般温暖的无言问候。在你说话之前,它已经定下了人们情绪的基调。你的语调和面部表情是每一次人际交往的重要部分,因为它们是你内心世界的窗口。它们会透露你是否真的很高兴见到对方。所以,要有目的地、真诚地运用你的语调、表情、眼神,定下人们情绪的基调。这样,你就永远是个赢家。
第十二章:通过赞扬给予人们力量
当有人真诚地称赞你的时候,你感觉如何呢?感觉很好,对吧?这是很有威力的事情。这种美好的感觉会使你的精神振奋达几个小时,甚至几天。每次你想到它,你都会再一次振作起来。

人们需要称赞,就像人们需要食物一样。没有称赞,人们就会变得脆弱,就容易受到各种不良思维的侵扰;没有称赞,人的精神免疫系统就会停止运作。真诚的称赞是使人内心保持坚强的燃料,它使人快乐。而快 乐的人比较容易相处,也比不快乐的人有更高的生产力。所以,学会真诚地称赞人们是非常重要的技巧,因为它把人们内心最好的东西发掘出来了。
 
如何学会称赞呢?你只需要练习向别人说你自己喜欢从别人那里听到的事情。当他们出色地做到某件事情后,要祝贺他们。告诉他们,你是多么欣赏他们所做出的贡献。当他们看起来很不错或者对你说了有价值的东西的时候,要告诉他们你的想法。
 
慷慨大方地使用你的称赞,时刻注意可以称赞的人和可以称赞的事情。 

以下是一些帮助你培养这个技巧的几点提示: 
1.一定是真诚的。 
奉承不是称赞,千万不要说不是发自内心的话。如果你这样做了,当你真的要严肃的时候,人们就不会相信你了。有很多事情可以让你真诚地称赞别人,你没有必要说不真心的话。 

2.称赞事实,而不是人。 
如果你把称赞的焦点放在人们所做的事情上,而不是放在他们身上,人们就会更容易接受你的称赞,而不会引起尴尬。比如,说“莎丽,你的讲解非常好”,就比说“莎丽,你好棒”更好。又如, “约翰,你编辑的那个演讲稿实在太好了”,就比“我实在找不到一个更好的编辑”更好。
 
3.称赞要具体。 
当称赞是针对某一件事情的时候,它就会更有力量。称赞越广泛,它的力量越弱。所以,当称赞别人的时候,要针对某一件具体的事情。例如, “约翰,你今晚戴的这条领带配这套黑色西装,非常耀眼”,就比“约翰,你今晚穿得很好看”更有力量。再举例说,“莎丽,你每次和人们说话,都能使他们觉得自己很重要”,就比“莎丽,你真会与人相处”更好。
 
4.掌握称赞的“快乐习惯”。
你每一次称赞别人,都有巨大的附带利益,它会使你同时得到满足。这里有一个宇宙的规律:如果你不能为自己增加快乐,那么你就不能为任何人增加快乐!所以,每天起码要称赞三个人,你将感受到自己的快乐指数不断上升。

把它看做一个游戏。经常留意可以称赞的好事,它会增强你的积极心态。你会惊喜地发现,自己周围有许多以前从没有注意到的快乐!

称赞别人是一个使你快乐的习惯!它也是一个人际关系技巧。
第十三章 通过反馈给予人们力量
给予人们成功的反馈的秘密,在于你这样做的精神,即使它在本质上是校正性的。如果你怒气冲冲,你肯定觉得自己很没面子。当你觉得自己的面子很重要的时候,你做出反馈的目的就不会是帮助别人,而只是发泄自己的怒气。这对你毫无益处。 

但是,如果你的目的在于取得积极的效果,首先为别人,其次为自己,再加上你有技巧地处理这些事情,那么你可以成就许多事情。 

这里有一些可以指引你的经验之谈: 
1.校正性反馈必须私下地。秘密地进行。 
那意味着,除了你们双方,绝对不能有他人在场。你们不能只是站在一个拥挤房间的某个角落。你们必须要呆在一个关着门的房间里,以免人们路过的时候走进来。知道这个谈话的只能有你们双方。
 
2.总是以称赞开始。 
无论有什么地方需要校正,肯定有更多的不需要校正的地方。先称赞人们做得对的地方,然后再谈到需要校正的事情。在诚实称赞的光芒下,校正看起来就不像批评,也不会被认为是批评。它的一切目的只是提出一些建议,使事情变得更好一些。 

3.称赞要针对本人,而校正不要针对本人。 
如果你友好的话语充满情感而且积极向上,人们的情绪就会得到提升。当你提出建议的时候,要确保它们是客观的。把它们表达出来的时候,不要针对本人。不要把焦点放在工作、放在过程、放在结果上,也不要放在所涉及的人身上。 

4.不要加入任何责备。 
反馈绝对不是责备。讨论一个不正确的情形的惟一目的,是使之正确起来;而不是责备某个人。一旦你把问题解释清楚了,就要直接讨论可能的解决办法,不要纠缠于消极的事情上。同时,千万不要使任何人觉得他们受到责备。 

5.不要使自己超越他人。 
即使你的身份、学识或经验非凡,也不要把它用以施加压力给别人。这会让别人与你配合时感觉压抑。你只要简单地把问题解释清楚,然后请求他们在实施解决方法的过程中给予帮助。让你的学识与经验自动放出光芒,不要利用地位去达到目的。
 
6.别对某件事情唠叨不停。 
对于一种情形,谈话一次就已经足够。一旦问题解决了,不要再提起它。
 
7.总是以积极的方式结束谈话。 
要确保每次校正性的谈话都要在友好的气氛中结束。问题应当得到解决,而你们双方都应该对此满意。千万不要使任何一方在离开的时候,仍然怀疑事情是否已经解决,要确保他们知道问题已经得到解决。告诉他们,你很珍视与他们的合作,并真心感谢他们的帮助。
 
对话如何结束是非常重要的。要记住,无论是什么问题,友谊永远比问题更重要。谨记这一点,反馈就可以给予人们力量,而不是痛苦。
第十四章 学会感谢人们是至关重要的
你要培养的最有威力的人际关系技巧之一是感激。如果你真挚地感谢他人,并让人们知道你感激他们,他们下一次就会以加倍的努力来回应你。如果你不感激他们,或者你没有把你的感激表现出来,就很可能不会有“下一次”。

原因在于,人们喜欢被欣赏。他们对那些心存感激的人的回应是愿意给予他们更多。而对于那些不懂感激的人,他们不愿意再给予。 所以,如果你确实对人们有感激之情,但你还没有学会如何有技巧地表示出来,这里有一个重要的技巧“谢谢”。它是一个为你开启机会大门的魔术师。

你在培养这种艺术时,要注意以下几点:
1.当你说“谢谢”的时候,要诚心诚意。
你也许注意到, “真诚”这个词在本书的每一页都会出现,因为,没有它,你将一事无成。若缺一乏真诚,所有的人际关系技巧都是虚假的。所以,当你感谢人们的时候,要真诚地感谢。
 
2.大声说!
当你感谢人们的时候,要表现出你是很乐意这样说的。不要吞吞吐吐或降低声音,把你的感情加进去!

3.注视他们的眼睛。
一没有眼神接触,心与心之间的交流就不会发生。当你感谢人们的时候,要看着他们。凝视着他们一会儿以后,告诉他们你是多么感谢他们为你所做的事情。

4.寻找感谢人们的机会。
普通人只会留意到明显的事情,而真正成功的人则总是留心生命中不起眼的事情。如果你想在与人们交往上真正获得成功,就要看到大多数人忽略的事情,并因此而感激人们。你要寻找机会感谢他们做的、但其他人很少称赞的细微事情。 

我知道,这些建议听起来很简单,但如果你使用它们,它们就会改变你与人们相处的结果。很少有其他事情比学会感谢人们、称赞人们的天赋更有力量的了。它会成为一把为你开启通往难以想象的机会大门的金钥匙。
第十五章 好姿态留下好印象
姿态是什么呢?是你站立或者行走的姿势吗?是你表现自己的方式吗?是的。但它还不止这些,它是你在内心表现自己的方式。

很多时候,你可以通过人们如何在外表表现自己,看到人们在内心如何看待自己。当他们疲倦地坐下来或无精打采地低着头时,这通常意味着他们的自我感觉不好。但如果他们抬头挺胸地走路,你就知道他们应该是对自己前进的方向很有信心,他们的自我感觉很好。 

别人对我们的想法,大多数都是我们可以控制的。一开始的时候,我们对于每个人都是陌生人,别人并不知道我们是谁。所以,别人看到的我们,其实是他们认为的我们。毕竟,我们了解自己,而他们不了解我们。

所以,他们认为,我们的观点比他们的更准确。 
    但他们并不是有意识地想到这一点。这更多的时候是一种感觉的传递。然而,你对自己的感觉会被他们所抓住,他们会开始对你产生这样那样的感觉。而这一切使得姿态,既包括内在的姿态也包括外在的姿态,非常重要。 

这里有一个问题:你是如何看待自己的?也许你最近没有这样问过自己。 
 
如果你还没有这样做,是花点时间好好想一想的时候了。当你这样想的时候,让我给你一些建议:无论你的过去如何,不要因为自己的现状而内疚。无论你的教育程度是高还是低、你富有还是贫穷、你是已婚还是未婚、你是年轻还是年老……你就是你。每一个生命都呼吸着同样的空气。上帝没有因为你而道歉,你也不应该这样做。对自己自豪,对自己所做的事情自豪;对你的现状、你的工作自豪;最重要的是,对你将要成为的人自豪。那就是姿态的全部内容! 
 
让我给你举个例子。当有人问你做什么赚钱时,你怎样回答呢?你是否会自我打击,或者给予自己你应得的尊重呢? “我只是一个地产经纪人。”这样回答并不足够好,你应得的东西比这更多。更好的姿态意味着说: “我帮助人们找到他们的梦想家园!”这是不是对你的价值的更好描绘呢? 
 
这里还有另一个例子, “我只是一个银行出纳员”这句话可以用更好的姿态表达为: “事实上,我为能在全国最好的金融机构工作而自豪。” 

尤其当你代表自己的生意的时候,花点时间好好想一想,自己应该怎么回答这个问题,这是很重要的。不要只是老调重弹。好好想一想最好的表达方法是什么?向你尊敬的人咨询一些意见。最重要的是,对你所做的事情和对你自己感到自豪。当你谈到自己的时候,这些想法自然会表现出来。 
 
原则是这样的:大多数人最终对你的看法,与你对自己的看法是相同的。如果你尊重自己,他们也会尊重你;如果你不尊重自己,他们也不会尊重你。
 
姿态是怎么样的呢?这里有几点提示: 

1.说出你的意思,说到就做到。
再说一次:要真诚!不要奉承他人,不要许下你做不到的诺言。
 
2.要热情。 
    如果你对自己和你所做的事情感觉良好,你就会有积极的力量。你自己相信了自己,你相信了自己要达到的目标。只有你能这样做,没有任何人能为你做到这些事情。热情是比金子更珍贵的东西,它也是很有感染力的。 
 
3.不要表现为对任何事情都过分焦急。
有姿态的人是自信的。他们知道事情的结果会与他们所想象的:二样,他们相信自己会成功;他们并不是迫不及待地做某些事情,他们有自制力。即使你不那样想,,也要那样做。一个冷静的外表可以缓和你的焦虑。 

4.不要用批评别人来抬高自己。 
贬低别人不会抬高你在任何人眼中的形象,要尊重你的竞争对手。无论做什么生意,你都要紧紧抓住自己的长处。贬低别人绝不会抬高你自己。
 
事实上,不要“攻击”任何事情。因为在这个过程中,是很容易冒犯别人的。

要谨记你妈妈曾经教过你的一条古老的教训: “如果你不能说什么好话,就什么也别说。”
第十六章有技巧地进行业务讲解
在开始的时候,大多数人都害怕在一群人面前讲话。但如果你掌握了一些简单的原理,你就会惊喜地发现,它是多么容易、多么有趣。人们会喜欢听你讲话,你自己也会乐在其中的。
 
1.知道要说些什么。
要清楚地知道你将要表达的信息。如果有必要的话,可以使用笔记卡片。但你要清楚你要讲解的要点。 

    2.说话简单明了,说完立即坐下来。
你不必使用华丽的语言,或故作聪明。说话要有趣,但同时也要简单明了。
 
3.说话的时候,要看着人们。
这是重要的规则。要引起听众的共鸣,不要做一部讲话机器,不要照本宜科。使用笔记没问题,但引用这 些笔记之后,要回到正在听你讲话的人们身上。他们比任何事情都重要。
 
4.根据他们的观点来讨论你的主题。
重要的不是你的观点,而,是他们的观点。诸如,你说的话会给他们带来什么:影响?·他们需要知道什么事情?那会给他们带来什么好处?

5.你并不是一个“演讲者”,你只是一个人。
请记住这一点。你站在那里,不是要做一次演讲,你只是站在那里讲一些人们需要知道的事情。所以,不要做一个“演讲者”,你只要做你自己,自然、真诚地说出你要说的话。
后记 如何使用本书的信息
读了某些东西并不意味着你已经学会了它们。与大多数人一样,你只会保留你读到的10%的内容。如果你看到并听到某些事情,你会记得其中的50%。然而,如果你亲自去做这些事情,那么你学习的有效率突然间会达到90%。

所以,本书并不只是一本技巧手册。它不是让你读了之后就扔到一边的。这是一本“告诉和展示”的书。 除非它把你带进一个“告诉和展示”的氛围,否则它根本不值得被印刷在这张白纸上。 

我的建议是这样的:
1.每天读一章。
2.每天早上(如果可能的话,大声朗读)读一遍。
3.在你的记事本里写下主要的原则。
4.然后在一整天里练习这一个原则。。
5.在等候红绿灯或者排队的时候,自己背诵一次。
6.尽可能多地观察别人如何与人交往。
7.留意他们是否遵循那些原则。
8.看看他们的人际关系技巧如何,并记下你所见到的事情。 

寻找那些正在把你专注的原则付诸行动的人。你也许找不到很多这样的人。遗憾的是,当谈到人际关系这个方面的时候,绝大多数人都是一窍不通的。所以,生活中成功的人是如此地少。

我可以坦率地告诉你们:如果不掌握这些原则,你就不会有真正的成功。

无论你所追求的是财务目标,还是更好的家庭关系,或者是更长久的友谊,无论你追求的是哪种形式的成功,人际关系永远是这些事情的基础。

学习这些原则不只是把知识记在脑海里。它需要练习和承诺。你要成为关心他人与关心自己一样的人。一旦你做到了这一点,成功是不可阻挡的。事实上,你甚至不需要寻找成功,它自己会找上门来的。
 
祝愿你在生活的旅程中,实现自己的梦想! 
德士特·耶格

Friday, July 08, 2005

 

Some notes on Academic Job Searching - 2

1.
The ASEE Student Chapter Academic Job Search Handbook-- a Collection of Resources and Useful Information

From http://widget.ecn.purdue.edu/~asee/grad/jobs/homepage.html

The Job Search Procedure
Where the Jobs Are
How to Apply
Time Schedules for Academic Jobs
Summary
The Application Materials
The Curriculum Vitae
The Cover Letter
The Statement of Research and Educational Objectives
What Your Application Materials Should Say
Summary
The Search Committee and the Department Head
Where the Application Materials Go
The Faculty Search Committee
Application Review and the Search Committee
Publications...
The Personal Interview and the Search Committee
The Department Head
Summary
The Interview
The ``Typical'' Academic Interview
The People You'll Meet
The Faculty in Your Area
The Faculty Outside Your Area
The Chair and the Dean
The Interview Seminar
The Applicant's Responsibilities
Summary
The Offer
The Offer Itself
The Non-Research-Oriented Negotiable Items
Research-Oriented Negotiable Items
Accepting the Offer
Summary
A Final Word...
General Summary
Acknowledments
Sample Interview Questions
References
About this document ...

The Job Search Procedure
In this chapter, the procedure of applying for an academic position is discussed. We'll talk about where to find job postings, how to apply, and what happens to your application after you send it. The timing of a job search is critical, and we discuss that a bit also. The message to take from this chapter is the job search process is not easy. It requires diligence (check those postings weekly...), creativity, and most of all time. Sending out a few resumes here and there won't be enough. You've got to make the time to conduct a thorough search, and this search begins with job postings.

Where the Jobs Are
The obvious first step in the academic job search process is to determine where job openings exist. There are more than a few ways of doing this, and some of them may surprise you. A typical job posting is shown in Figure 1.1. Note that it includes the important information like: desired area, level of appointment, necessary background, teaching and research expectations, and approximate starting date. In this section, we talk about four important sources of information.



Figure 1.1: Sample Advertisement


The first excellent source of well-organized information about jobs in your discipline is your industry publications. For mechanical engineers, for example, this would include Mechanical Engineering. You should definitely subscribe to your field's trade publications, or at least consistently have one available to you. These are usually quite complete sources of job listings. Another non-discipline-specific publication is the ASEE Prism, a monthly magazine published by the American Society for Engineering Education. The classified ads in the Prism are also very thorough, and the magazine also contains alot of good information about teaching-related issues. Typical job postings look like the one in Figure 1.1. Note that it contains information on the school, the position, and some of the expectations. It also includes the name and address of the person to whom you should send your application materials.

Another great source of information and job postings is the internet. There are many world wide web sites which list jobs in academia. For example, the ASEE classified ads are on-line at http://www.asee.org. Similarly, other trade publications have home pages on the internet. However, there are other sites dedicated to academic jobs, like Minnesota's Academic Positions Network (APN). This gopher site lists academic jobs by state (and country), and the list is fairly complete. There are a host of others, and a complete listing of the sites we've found so far is contained in Netscape bookmarks on the ASEE ecn account, asee@ecn.purdue.edu.

There are two other good sources of information that are not so generally accessible. The first is the faculty in your own department. Your major professor or other faculty in the department probably has contacts at other universities, and they may hear information relevant to your job search. The information may be as simple as: ``Hey, a colleague mentioned that a job at so-and-so university will be posted soon, so make sure to look for it...'' Or, the information may be more specific. The point is that the faculty in your department may be a great source of information and advice. The final good source of information is also one of limited access to most graduate students. Conferences and professional meetings are great places to make contacts at other universities and to meet prominent people in your field. Being active in your professional societies provides an excellent opportunity for networking, and making new contacts and establishing new colleagues is a great way to get a foot into academia.

Once you have found a job posting for a position that interests you, promptly submit your application materials. You never want to be late for an application deadline. So it's important not to be lazy! Let's briefly examine the application materials, and then the timing of the faculty search process.

How to Apply
Once you have identified a position, you should submit your application. This section will briefly explain what the application consists of. This topic is covered more fully in Chapter 2. The first, and very important, part of the application is the cover letter, detailed in Section 2.2. The cover letter should announce your interest in the position, but it is also a chance to describe certain things about yourself that are not reflected on your resume. For example, you might briefly highlight your research, explaining your diverse background and broad interests.

The next piece of the application is the academic resume, called the curriculum vitae, or c.v. for short. The c.v. is explained more fully in Section 2.1. It should contain all of your relevant education (degrees and where they are from), experience (educational and industrial), as well as publication, academic service experience, and references. This is a very important document, and you should therefore spend a great deal of time making sure that it frames your achievements in their most favorable light. You never want to sell yourself short!

The final section of the application should be your ``statement of educational objectives'', discussed in Section 2.3. This is your chance to explain your teaching and research objectives. You should explain your research plan, what topics you'd like to examine, and your ideas about funding. You should also list the classes that you'd like to teach (undergraduate and graduate level), the courses you'd like to develop, and your thoughts on teaching innovation, advising, or other related topics. This document, typically several pages in length, is your chance to explain your strengths, and how you will use them in your new faculty position. It is critical for you to have a plan before you begin your new career as a junior faculty.

A final thought on application materials, and this cannot be understated: your application materials must be free of spelling and grammatical errors. Take extra time, and let your friends and colleagues examine your application materials. The easiest way to get rejected for a faculty position is to demonstrate that you don't even care enough about the job to make sure you spelled everything correctly. There's alot more information about the application materials found in Chapter 2.

Time Schedules for Academic Jobs
The academic job search is inherently a time consuming process. This section explains why that is the case, and exactly how long you can expect to be involved. The underlying message of this section also cannot be understated: start early! Waiting until two months before you graduate to begin your faculty job search will severely limit your chances of finding the job you want!

The job search usually begins with the department announcing the opening through various formal outlets, like trade publications. The department also sets up a faculty search committee, which plays an important role in the search process. Typically, the search proceeds as follows. The department head or search committee chair collects applications for several weeks. Then, this person examines the applications and immediately discounts those applicants who are obviously unqualified. The rest of the applications are forwarded to the search committee, each member of which has a chance to look at the application materials. Because the search committee is composed of active faculty in the department to which you applied, they have a variety of other commitments, including teaching, research, and other forms of academic service. Therefore, their review of the first wave of applicants can take quite a long time. For the highest quality applicants, the search committee members typically gather letters of recommendation from the applicant's references, and based upon all the information available to them, they make a recommendation on who should be granted campus visits and personal interviews.

The interview itself typically consists of an entire day of meeting faculty, discussing teaching and research issues, and touring laboratories and other department resources (computer labs, for example). The day culminates in the applicant's seminar, in which the applicant describes current research issues. Following the seminar, an exit interview with the department head ends a long day. Interviewing candidates can take several weeks, considering scheduling problems, etc.

The final stage of the search process consists of the search committee deciding whom to offer the position to. They then recommend a candidate to the department head, who has the final decision on the matter (typically, the head agrees with the committee members). The head actually makes the offer to the candidate, who then has time to consider the offer and possibly negotiate.

Considering all of the different things happening in the faculty search process, you can certainly understand why it can take so long to fill a position. From the department's standpoint, they are making a 30-40 year commitment to someone (assuming the applicant remains happy at the university), and it pays them to take their time making that decision. So, you must start early when looking for a job! Understanding the process (and how much time it can take) is important for your success in finding a job; the job search process and the roles of the various people involved is discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 3.

Summary
The important points from this chapter can be summarized as follows:

1. There are many sources of available job information. Don't discount sources like the internet, and the academic grapevine.
2. Include your ``Statement of Educational Objectives'' with your application materials.
3. Start the job search process early. The time frame for a faculty search can be quite long, so don't wait until the last minute.

With this overview of the application process, we are now ready to examine more closely the details. In the next chapter, the components of the application are detailed, along with advice and guidelines from a variety of sources.

The Application Materials
The first means of evaluating an applicant's abilities is through the academic resume. This typically includes the c.v. itself, along with a Statement of Research and Educational Objectives, and a short cover letter explaining how the applicant is suitable for the advertised position. Because the decision to grant or deny a personal interview is based largely upon these three documents (although letters of recommendation also count), it is critical that they are clear, concise, and well organized. Of course, it also helps if you have lots of good credentials to discuss (including things like publications, academic service, and teaching experience). But it is still very important, whatever your level of achievement and experience, to frame your accomplishments in their best light. You can do yourself a great disservice by sending a mediocre application. Let's begin by looking at the first important part of the application materials, the c.v.

The Curriculum Vitae
The first step in the academic job hunt generally begins with development of a quality academic resume. It is advantageous to begin drafting a curriculum vitae early in your graduate career, as you are then able to identify areas that are in need of work. The c.v. will be a very important document in the application process. As it will be one of the first impressions on the search committee, make sure there are no typographical or grammatical errors in the c.v., as well as other documents you send! Competition for academic positions today is very stiff, and even relatively minor mistakes can lead to elimation of a candidate. (A university today will often receive up to 200 applications for an advertised position!)

In general, your c.v. should include your research and teaching interests, education, research and teaching experience, publications and presentations, honors/societies, and references (There are a number of sources dealing more specifically with content of the c.v.). Many faculty indicate that the first thing the search committee will look at is your background, research area of interest, advisor, publications (how many and what journals?), and university. Other items mentioned are industrial experience, the title of your dissertation, awards/fellowships/honors, activities, and ``personality''. The search committee may not agree on any hard limits for a minimum number of publications. While some may indicate a three publication minimum, others will look at the c.v. more subjectively. In general, the search committee looks for competence, leadership, maturity, and vision in your chosen field as expressed through excellent credentials. You should organize your c.v. in a logical manner, separating the main sections with headings like ``Educational Background'', ``Related Experience'', and ``Refereed Publications''. If you have any record of academic service (reviewing papers, or serving as an officer in a student organization, for example), list that also. Also included should be a section containing the names, addresses, and phone numbers (and even e-mail addresses!) of your referees. These are the people who will be called upon to write recommendations for you, so be sure to choose your recommender wisely.

The Cover Letter
The cover letter to accompany your c.v. should briefly and formally state your interest in the position. You should include an anticipated completion data for your degree. Without going into too much detail, or repeating verbatim items contained in the c.v., describe how your qualifications and interest match those of the advertised position. In the letter, try to highlight particular aspects of the c.v. that you want noticed (``...my interdisciplinary training in solid mechanics and heat transfer...''); also show your excellent writing ability. The letter should be concise, so try to keep it to one page. The search committee members will be reading many of these cover letters, so contain only the important information; don't try to impress the committee with your verbosity. Most faculty agree that a wisely-conceived and well-written cover letter is crucial to your success as an applicant. It may be a good idea to prepare three generic cover letters, one for schools with advertised positions within your area, one to schools with an open position that may not exactly match your qualifications, and one to schools with no current opening. When you send out a letter, it should then be personalized by naming the school and position. For example, "I was pleased to read of a faculty position open in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Minnesota...". Convince the school that you are worthy of consideration.

The Statement of Research and Educational Objectives
Along with the c.v. and cover letter it is often suggested to include a research plan, or "5-year plan". The plan may include descriptions of your graduate research, post-doctoral research, direction you intend to pursue in your new research, and possible extensions of your research to date. Remember that your current research is regarded as the intellectual property of your advisor, so you want to branch out somewhat. It is advised, however, not to branch out too far, as getting tenure in 5 years working in a new field will be quite difficult! In the 5-year plan, the search committee will evaluate your research vision. It is important to retain some degree of flexibility, as you don't want to eliminate yourself from possible positions. Your plan should address where you want to go with research, and why those topics are particularly important. It has been suggested to identify areas in need of research, not necessarily with specific applications in mind. When summarizing research interests and direction, it is important to include possible funding sources. Try to be specific will funding possibilities, for example, ``Companies such as Johnson and Johnson Professional will be...'', or ``The National Science Foundation is...''. It may also be advantageous to keep in mind (but not necessarily on your research plan!) what type of funding and lab space you will need in a start-up package.

What Your Application Materials Should Say
When applying for an academic position, there is no substitute for good credentials. However, presentation of those credentials is nearly as important. The actual words on your c.v. and research plan will be different from everyone else's. However, the tone of your application materials is very important. You are trying to demonstrate to the department head and the search committee that have not only developed the necessary skills for successful teaching and research (as revealed in your c.v.), but that you have also developed some vision as to where your career as a scientist will take you. For this reason, it is critical that you demonstrate that vision in the form of a well-organized and concise research and teaching plan.

When looking for new faculty members, it does not pay the department to hire someone who doesn't know what they are getting into. If they were to hire someone who is naive about the expectations, then that person will not be and immediate asset to the department. The search committee and the department chair are looking for someone with vision, someone who is knowledgeable about academic careers and their expectations, and who can hit the ground running. Remember:

It is very easy to write a standard cover letter or research plan which requires little thought and reveals little concrete information about your future plans. Writing a naive cover letter or research plan is an easy way to be discounted from consideration. Instead, write your future plans and goals with enough detail to reveal how much thought you've put into them.
The research plan does not need to be etched in stone, but it should be specific enough to answer the following questions:

1. What areas are in need of research? You don't necessarily need to mention specific applications, but certainly discuss the overall relevance.
2. Why are these areas important? How do these problems fit into the big picture?
3. Who is interested in these areas? What are the primary funding sources for this research? You don't necessarily need to mention specific companies; rather, just say ``...the research has obvious automotive applications, and I will seek support from the Big Three auto makers...''
4. What facilities will you need to get started? Will you need a large lab or high-powered computational resources?
5. What equipment is necessary to perform the research? How much will an initial experimental set-up cost?

These are all questions to keep in mind when writing your research plan. Try to address these issues in your plan, and also discuss other items directly related to your work. You need to sound like you've given these topics a great deal of thought, as they are the building blocks of your academic career. A great way to impress the search committee and the department head is to demonstrate excellent vision.

Summary
In this chapter we have briefly examined the application materials and what should be included. The main points to remember are:

1. Your c.v. should be a concise and well-organized description of your accomplishments thus far. It should include all related experience, your thesis title and advisor, your publications, and any other relevant experience (academic service, for example). Also include any fellowships or awards.
2. Your Statement of Research and Educational Objectives should include a clear description of your future research plans. These plans should include not only research directions, but also potential funding sources. You should describe why the work you'll study is important, and who will be interested in it.
3. Your cover letter should be a short description of how your credentials make you qualified for the advertised job. It should include the position title, where you saw the ad, and the fact that you are indeed applying for the job.
4. Your application materials should reveal you to be a mature, thoughtful, and well-prepared researcher and teacher who possesses an appreciation for excellence and strong vision.

The Search Committee and the Department Head
In this chapter, the key players in the job search process are discussed. Obviously, the applicant plays a big role in the process, but there are two other parties involved. The faculty search committee and the department head are the people who examine the c.v.'s and evaluate the credentials of all the applicants. While all three of these parties are looking at the same job search process, it should not surprise you that they often have very different views and opinions. Understanding how the search committee works, and how it interacts with the department head, will allow you to better prepare for the job search. The job search is now looked at through the eyes of the search committee and department head.

Where the Application Materials Go
Let's say that you have identified a job that interests you, completed your application materials (and checked them for typographical and grammatical errors!), and sent it to the department. Now what happens? All of the applications typically go to either the department head, or the search committee chair. This person then sorts through the applications, identifying those candidates who are obviously not qualified. Common reasons for rejection at this point are:

1. candidate's expertise not in the area of the available position
2. candidate's experience (research and/or teaching) not strong enough for consideration
3. others (for example, older candidates--say, one who has been in industry for 35 years--are not often hired at the assistant professor level; younger candidates don't usually have the credentials to be hired at a more senior position)

Note that the above criteria does not include the ``publications''. This early in the application review process, publication count is not examined very critically. It is at the committee meetings that credentials like publications, recommendations, teaching experience, etc. come into play.

After pre-screening by the head or search committee chair, the applicant pool has been reduced to a more manageable number. It is difficult to say how many applications are received, or how many are considered by the committee, but suffice it to say that there will be many, many applicants for one job. The search committee may look at well over 30-40 c.v.'s, so it's important that yours be of the highest quality. Once the committee has the reduced applicant pool, they examine the application materials, make phone calls to references and obtain letters of recommendation, and rate candidates in terms of their credentials. But, what specifically are they looking for in a quality candidate? That question is examined in the next section.

The Faculty Search Committee
The faculty search committee is a panel of usually 5-6 faculty members in areas related to that of the job posting. This allows them to critically evaluate the research activities of the candidates. Each committee member views every application, and interviews are granted after a vote on the strengths of the candidates. There can be a substantial amount of discussion and deliberation by the committee, as often there are several high quality candidates. However, the definition of a ``high quality'' candidate is not universal. In order to shed some light on how the committee comes to its decision, we now examine the details of the search from the committee's perspective.

Application Review and the Search Committee
The first question you should be asking yourself is: What is the search committee looking for in an applicant? It turns out, as you might guess, that the answer to that question is not straight-forward. Consider first a posting for a ``...tenure-track position in the area of Design...'' Within the area of Design, there are a great many specialties, so how does the committee know what they are looking for? One way is for them to identify the deficiencies in their department. That is, does there exist a need for a faculty member in a particular research area? Would having a person in that area significantly help the department? Does that area possess many potential funding sources? Is there the possibility of a strong fundamental contribution in that area? Is the area a so-called ``hot topic''? These questions and others are considered when deciding the particular discipline of the successful candidate. Given that the job posting itself may not reveal exactly whom the committee is looking for, how do we know the specifics? The grapevine can be a powerful tool in providing information about jobs. Your advisor or other professional contacts may be able to find out just how narrow the faculty search is. The moral of this story is that if you are rejected early in the committee discussions, it does not mean that you are not a strong applicant or that you have weak credentials. It could be that your area of expertise is not what the committee is looking for. The opposite of this situation is for exceptional applicants. For high quality candidates, the search may be expanded. For a person of exceptional talent whose area of expertise does not exactly match the job posting, the committee may not reject them. The committee is typically looking for the optimum combination of a person whose research area is near what is desired, and a person who is exceptionally talented. The most qualified person in terms of research area may not be the most talented applicant, so some compromise must often be made by the committee. This compromise is completely out of the applicant's control, unfortunately.

Let's say that you've made it to the next round of review. The committee will now critically evaluate your credentials, research, and teaching background in an effort to find the best candidate. There is a fairly short list of attributes that the committee sees as valuable. This list (in no particular order) typically includes:

university graduated from
thesis title and thesis advisor
publications in refereed journals
awards, fellowships, etc.
While the committee does not have a rigid set of standards by which they judge candidates ( there is no ``minimum number of publications''!), they are looking for quality and talent. That last point deserves to be reiterated--a person with 7 publications on the same subject in second-rate journals may not be as desirable as a person with 3 publications in leading journals in their field. It is not a matter of quantity; it is a matter of quality. The search committee looks for people of the highest caliber, not necessarily the person with highest publication count.

Another very important document to the search committee is the ``Statement of Research and Teaching Objectives''. This document details your goals for future research and teaching, and how you will achieve them. This information is critical for the search committee because it tells them that you have given alot of thought to your future, the direction in which it is going, and the obstacles you will likely encounter. They will look at this document very closely; therefore, it is critical that you demonstrate your potential for success. They will be evaluating not only your research and teaching plans for their content, but on how well they are presented, i.e. communication skills. The Statement of Research and Teaching Objectives is discussed more thoroughly in Section 2.3.

The letters of recommendation are very important. For your references, you should choose people who can evaluate your research and/or teaching experience, and who will give a good recommendation. MacKenzie and Nye discuss recommendation letters very nicely:

Requesting letters of recommendation should be taken seriously. Your request should be in writing and specify to whom the letter is to be addressed, the complete address, and the specifics of the position. Preferably, the job description or job advertisement copy should be attached to your letter requesting the letter of recommendation. Additionally, it is wise to include a copy of your resume. Your request should be specifically to write a letter in support of your application. You are not interested in having someone do a balanced appraisal of your pluses and minuses. Make it clear that what you want is not a letter of reference (to include some bad news), but a letter or recommendation (which is all good news).
Armed with all of these materials for each applicant, the search committee then critically evaluates the credentials of the applicants. The committee then discusses and debates until the final short list is obtained. Personal interviews are granted to this final list of people. Because of the cost and time involved with personal interviews, the committee usually only extends invitations to a few people (maybe 3 or 4) the first time around. If no offer is to be extended as a result of the first set of interviews, more will be conducted until a suitable candidate is identified. Now that we've talked about many of the procedural aspects of the committee's job, and some of the details of what they are looking for, we will move on to the responsibilities of the department head. But first, there is a topic that is of such concern to so many that it is discussed on its own: publications.

Publications...
This is such an important topic that it deserves its own section. A common question from graduate students: ``How important are publications, and how many do I need?'' The answer is: Publications are extremely important! If you are planning to apply to a research-oriented school (like Purdue, for example) it is absolutely critical that you have published your research work. How many do you need? Well, that depends alot on where you are applying (first or second tier school?), what sorts of research you do (fundamental or applied?), and the quality of the publications (do they appear in high quality refereed journals?). A bit more insight may be drawn if we consider the following:

First, publications demonstrate your ability to perform engineering research, recognize its relevance, and effectively communicate the results and importance. These are crucial qualities for a researcher, and therefore for a faculty member. Refereed publications are important because they are reviewed by your peers, who presumably can evaluate their quality and relevance. It is for this reason that refereed journal publications typically hold more weight than non-reviewed papers. Conference papers, for example, are often either not reviewed, or the review process is less rigorous than for archival journals. Annual conferences are often a forum for works in progress, whose details have not been entirely worked out. These papers are certainly important contributions, but the body of research needs to be summarized in a refereed journal paper. Also keep in mind that every field has certain journals which are of higher quality than others. Make sure that you know which journals fall into which category, and try to publish in the best journals you can.
It's now more clear that the question ``how many publications do I need to be considered a serious candidate?'' does not possess a universal answer. Rather, it depends upon a variety of factors. Publishing one fundamental milestone paper which alters the state of the art as we know it is probably better than publishing 5 articles in second-rate journals. Remember the moral of the story:

If you are planning a faculty career at a research institution, the quality of your research work will be judged by existing documentation of your contributions, i.e. your publications. Do not wait until the end of your program to begin publishing your work. Do start early. The easiest way to find a job is to show that you do high quality work by documenting that work in archival journals.

The Personal Interview and the Search Committee
The role of the faculty search committee during the personal interview is not all that different from that of other non-committee faculty members. Typically, they are scheduled to meet with the candidate, as are other faculty members. They have a short personal interview with the candidate, and often search committee members will accompany the candidate to lunch or dinner. The actual interview and what to expect are discussed in Chapter 4.

The Department Head
The role of the department head in the faculty search process is somewhat limited. The head, as mentioned previously, pre-screens applicants but passes the acceptable candidates on the the search committee. The head typically interacts with the committee members only a few times during the search. The head's role in the application review stage is often minimal, while it is much more prominent in the personal interview stage of the process.

During the personal interview, the head will greet the candidate in the morning and prepare for the day. The head will also attend the candidate's seminar. At the end of the day, an exit interview with the candidate is conducted, and the visit is discussed. It is here that the applicant really has a chance to step forward. Discussions about future research topics, funding, collaboration, teaching load, and many other important topics takes place. More attention is given to the personal interview in Chapter 4. However, it is important to remember what the head is trying to find out. The head is evaluating your qualities as a person. Common concerns are:

1. Will you be able to work with other faculty members in a collegial manner?
2. Do you have a strong plan for your future?
3. Are you confident yet not arrogant?
4. Do you interact well with people?
5. Do you have good communication skills?
6. Can you effectively articulate your ideas and visions? (This is often ascertained at the seminar)
7. Are you intelligent (can you speak intelligently about related topics, and do you mistakenly try to discuss topics about which you know very little)?
8. Do you have a real appreciation for excellence and do you have a plan for how to achieve it?

The head is looking to fill a position with the highest quality person available, and the commitment is for 30-40 years, assuming the hired professor becomes tenured and intends to stay at the university. So, the head is critically evaluating all of these personal qualities in addition to your technical skills. Do not neglect this important consideration when interviewing.

Summary
The important points from this chapter are:

1. The quality candidate possesses excellent technical skills, and has documented those skills through publication of scholarly articles in archival journals.
2. The quality candidate has a solid research and teaching plan which includes realizable goals and a strategy for achieving them.
3. The successful candidate demonstrates excellent inter-personal skills in the form of collegiality, respect, and courtesy.

The Interview
Congratulations! You have been granted a personal interview for the faculty position at you first choice university. Talk about anxiety! While it is true that the academic interview can be quite nerve-wracking, by understanding the process and the expectations, you can prepare and perform well. This chapter investigates the ``typical'' academic interview, discusses the main features, and gives a bit of advice about the interview seminar. By preparing well ahead of time, you will have no trouble succeeding in the interview.

The ``Typical'' Academic Interview
The academic interview usually consists of one day-long series of small interviews. Breakfast meetings, 30 minute sessions with other faculty members, the interview seminar, the department head meetings, and the session with the Dean all make for a long, tiring day. A sample itinerary might look like the one shown in Figure 4.1 (adapted from dantzig).


Figure 4.1: Sample Interview Schedule


The highlight of the day is clearly the interview seminar, in which you are asked to present your recent research. This extremely important event is detailed more in Section 4.3. During this long day, you will be asked many questions, and you should ask many questions. In order to more effectively prepare for your interview, it's a good idea to understand the process and to examine exactly the traits for which the interviewers are looking.

The People You'll Meet
During your visit to campus, you will meet a variety of people, most of whom fall into one or more of the following categories. First there are the faculty members in your area--those on the search committee and in related areas. They will know something about your research area. Next, there are those faculty members who are in completely different areas. Finally, there is that group of people who are very important in the hiring process, regardless of their research area. These people include the department chair and the dean. It's important to recognize that each of these groups will be evaluating different things during their meetings with you.

The Faculty in Your Area
You will likely meet many faculty in your area, and invariably the conversation will move towards your research. Because these people have a certain amount of experience in your (or a closely related) area, they will be able to speak intelligently, and ask very good questions. These questions can be quite specific (``... I read your recent paper, and I was wondering if you could explain a bit more clearly this part about...''), or the questions can be more general (``... What do you think are the important research topics for the coming decade, and how does your current research fit into them?''). It is critical to be able to answer both types of questions intelligently and effectively, because...

The interview process is not strictly about identifying the person with the most technical competence. If you have been granted a personal interview, your technical abilities, as demonstrated in your c.v., are clearly strong enough. The process is also about finding the person who expresses those technical abilities in the most understandable way. The person who communicates those ideas the most effectively will be a strong candidate.
Another important concern, which you should carry with you throughout the process, is your future goals and plans. Your description of your goals began with your Statement of Research and Teaching Objectives. On those few pages you outlined your future plans. In the personal interview, you should anticipate many, many questions about your research and teaching goals. It is critical for you to not only have vision, but to be able to describe that vision in a clear and concise way. This is your chance to sell yourself as a competent, well-prepared, ambitious researcher, as well as an excellent teacher (i.e., communicator).

The Faculty Outside Your Area
When meeting faculty whose area of expertise is not similar to yours, the conversation will be slightly different. You may talk very vaguely about your research or theirs, but the specifics will be left off. You may again discuss your research or teaching vision, and questions like ``What are your thoughts on the state of graduate education?'' may come up. You should be very ready to answer such questions about the educational side of a faculty job. You may want to have a few questions of your own (``Have you experienced any difficulty attracting high caliber graduate students to the University?''). The bottom line, however, is that these people are also evaluating you as a communicator. They may not be terribly qualified to evaluate the quality of your research, so they would like you to demonstrate your general intelligence and communication skills. The conversation may lag, and you may have to talk about the weather or the Dallas Cowboys, but always make a good impression with your communication skills.

The Chair and the Dean
While it's very important to make a good impression on the faculty from both inside and outside your area, the department chair and the dean are the two people you really want to impress. The meeting with these two will take a decidedly different tone than with any of the faculty. These two people are typically not experienced in your area, and therefore they won't be evaluating your technical skills. What they will be examining, very closely, will be your ability to be an asset to the department and to the university. The obvious question, then, is how do you convince them that you will be a great addition to the department? You should try to demonstrate that you are prepared for the job by answering these sorts of questions.

1. Do you demonstrate research/teaching vision?
2. Do you have concrete goals and aspirations?
3. Do you have a strategy for achieving those goals?
4. Do you understand what obstacles you'll have to overcome?

Demonstrating vision begins when you write your Statement of Objectives. Give a great deal of thought to the areas you'd like to investigate. You should develop concrete goals for your research and teaching. You should be able to describe the sorts of problems you would like to solve, as well as the types of classes you see as important for today's graduates to take. The answers to these two questions go together, because you need to understand why these things are important. You need to tie together what you want to do with why these endeavors are of value to you, the department, and science as a whole. Having a strategy for achieving these goals is important. Have you identified potential funding sources? Finally, understanding that achieving your goals is not going to be easy is important. Do you have a mature and realistic attitude about academic careers? Are you naive about the process? Do you understand the department's constraints upon, for example, lab space? And are your plans flexible enough to accommodate those constraints? Answers to these questions are critical, because these are the topics that the chair and the dean will want to discuss. You have to not only prove that you are technically competent. You must also demonstrate your excellent communication skills. But finally, you must show that you have vision and determination, and that you will indeed be a real asset to the department and the university.

The Interview Seminar
One of the most important parts of your interview will be the seminar. You will talk about your area of expertise, and it should last roughly an hour. By the time you are interviewing for jobs, you should have some experience speaking in front of your colleagues, whether at professional meetings, departmental seminars, or guest lectures. In any event, you must practice your seminar until it is polished. In order to make the best impression upon your audience, it is a good idea to understand the qualities they will be evaluating. Each of the three groups mentioned above will be represented at your seminar, and this makes things difficult for you. You are trying to present the same material to three different audiences at once, and this can be difficult. Let's explore exactly what each audience expects to derive from your seminar.

The faculty members in your area will be evaluating your technical contributions. If there is a faculty member in the audience who is particularly knowledgeable in your area, that faculty may ask very detailed questions. Your responses will demonstrate your ability to ``think on your feet''. Other faculty members in your area may ask somewhat more general questions, like ``how does this result fit in with...?'' You should be ready to respond intelligently and clearly to both types of questions. The questions from the audience are not asked to make you look bad--on the contrary, they give you a chance to make yourself look good through thoughtful and concise answers.

The faculty members outside your area may not know much about your research. As a result, they are evaluating your communication skills and your potential as a teacher. This is one of the reasons why it is critical for you to polish your seminar presentation as much as possible. You will prove yourself to be a great communicator by delivering a smooth and well-organized seminar. Questions from these audience members may also be designed to test your ability to think on your feet.

The department chair may know something about your area, but generally the chair will also be evaluating your potential as a teacher. However, he will also want you to demonstrate your vision. Typical questions that you should answer about your research during your talk, before anybody asks them, are:

1. How does this advance the state of the art?
2. How does this fit into the area as a whole?
3. What is the potential for future applications of this approach?

It is extremely important to point out the relevancy of your work, as well as future potential. You need to supply enough details to satisfy those audience members who want them, but you also need to clearly explain the ``Big Picture'' of what the research means, and how it relates to other works.

In general, you should beware of a few things during your seminar. First, you want to answer some very general questions in a good deal of detail. For example, you will want to describe the problem you worked on and why anybody would want to work on it. Provide a framework and some background for the research. Identify related studies, but make sure to distinguish your work from that of others. You also need to explain why your work is a valid and significant contribution to the field. How did you advance the state of knowledge? Where does you work fit in? Finally, you need to describe how this leads to future work or how it has made progress on the current problem. Also identify related problems for which your research might be relevant.

In terms of presentation, be careful about how many equations you put into your seminar. Remember, your aren't necessarily trying to demonstrate your grasp on the technical details or your mathematical prowess. Rather, you are trying to show that your can effectively communicate fairly technical material to a widely-varying audience in such a way that every audience member, regardless of how knowledgeable they are on the subject, learns something from your talk. You don't want to alienate the members of the audience who aren't at all familiar with your area by using lots of lengthy equations or technical jargon. The reader is referred to dantzig, Table II, page 6 for a nice description of your audience.

The Applicant's Responsibilities
A very important point to remember during the interview is that your academic future is a two-way street. You are interviewing the university as much as it is interviewing you. Your goals is to introduce yourself to the faculty, the chair, and the dean, and to put your best foot forward. You want to make a good impression on them, but they should make a good impression on you too. Decide whether this is a place where you want to work. Ask lots of questions! You will want to find out things like:

1. What percentage of assistant professors get tenure?
2. What is the lab space situation like?
3. How are the computational resources in the department?
4. Does the department foster a collegial atmosphere?
5. What are the expectations of a new faculty member?
6. Anything else that might affect the way you work...

You should try to talk to both junior and senior faculty in order to get their opinions. Maybe even talk to graduate students in order to understand the working atmosphere better. In the long run, you must decide whether or not that is the place for you. So ask lots of questions.

Summary
The academic interview is very unlike the industrial interview in many ways. For the academic job, you are typically expected to assume a great amount of responsibility on your first day on the job. Teaching class, raising research funds, performing research, performing academic service. These activities are all very time consuming, so during the interview, the people you meet will be trying to assess how well you'll perform these duties. You'll meet several different groups of people, but there exists a common thread in what they are trying to evaluate. The best way to make a good impression at the interview is to remember the following.

During the interview...

1. Stress your strong communication skills.
2. Demonstrate your research and teaching vision.
3. Identify where you'll fit in and how you'll be an asset.

...and concerning the seminar...

1. Practice your seminar until it is polished.
2. Remember your audience and whom you are trying to reach.
3. Relax and give your best performance.

This looks like a full day, and it truly is. Because you will be meeting both people in and out of your area, it's a very good idea to ask for catalogs, research activity summaries, and the like before you go on your interview trip. By becoming familiar with the research interests of the faculty you will meet, you will make a much better impression.

The Offer
In this chapter, the actual job offer, and what it includes, is discussed. It is not likely the an offer will be made on the day of your interview; however, on that day there may be some discussion of finances. That is, how much money will you need to begin your research program? This question and several other common questions are addressed in this chapter.

The Offer Itself
If, after the personal interview, an offer is made to you, congratulations! Now what? What does this mean? It means that the department has identified you as the person who will be its greatest asset of all the candidates who applied. As a result, they want you to succeed by helping you as much as possible. This help includes reduced teaching loads, so-called ``start-up funds'', and summary salary considerations. These items are all somewhat negotiable, and they are discussed individually below.

The Non-Research-Oriented Negotiable Items
There are two types of negotiable items, those related to research, and those not related to research. In this section, the non-research-related items are discussed. The first important item of negotiation is the teaching load. Typical packages for new assistant professors specify one class per semester for the first two to three years. By teaching only one class, you will have more time to write proposals to funding agencies (remember those funding agencies you mentioned in the Statement of Research and Teaching Objectives?!?). Another important concern is summer salary support. Because your salary will be in terms of a nine month appointment, you will need some means of support during the summer months. Typically this is in the form of research grants, but during your first year or two, you can derive that support from the department (their thinking is that it may take you a year or two to get your first grant funding). Other items might include an office computer and software, travel funds for the first few years (to national meetings, or to visit potential research sponsors), and moving expenses.

Research-Oriented Negotiable Items
In this section, we examine the other type of negotiable items, those related to research. This is an extremely important topic, because you only get what you ask for. The negotiation for research-oriented items will be the culmination of all your discussions and interactions with the department chair. The chair's experience with you and your research direction began with your Statement of Reseach and Teaching Objectives. That brief outline of your plans was a mere introduction. During the personal interview, you discussed in much more detail exactly what problems you'd like to solve, why they are important, and who would like to fund them. Now, during the negotiations, you get a chance to obtain the critical items you will need to hit the ground running.

You should have given much thought to your research goals and plans when writing the Statement of Research Objectives. Along with the problems you'd like to solve, you should have been thinking about how much it will cost to perform the research. Would you like to investigate a problem that requires alot of lab space, several very expensive pieces of high-tech equipment, and seven graduate students? Good luck. It is important to remember this:

Your negotiations must be tied to the research goals you explained in the Statement of Research Objectives, as well as those discussed during the personal interview. For this reason, you must not only have a very firm grasp on your research direction, but also on what facilities you'll need to move in that direction, and how much it will cost.
This only reinforces the idea that your Statement of Research Objectives must be given very thorough thought. A common question furing the negotiations might be: ``What is the one or two pieces of experimental equipment which would allow you to start your research program?'' Be ready to answer these questions thoughtfully. Your answers to these sorts of questions should be perfectly consistent with your goals and plans as discussed during the personal interview. Remember, once an offer has been made, the department has a vested interest in seeing you succeed. As a result, they will be willing (under certain constraints) to help as much as possible. Ask for what you need, but know what is reasonable.
Typically the items you can obtain in the start-up package are graduate student support for one year (one to two students), some laboratory space, and funds to purchase appropriate experimental equipment. You must remember that the department works not only under budgetary constraints, but also space constraints. So, lab space may be somewhat difficult to come by initially.

Accepting the Offer
When accepting the offer, do so in writing, but only after the details and negotiations are completely worked out and you have an offer, stating explicitly all the terms of the appointment, in writing. In this offer letter, the negotiated items should be described, as well as other terms of employment like benefits and services for university employees.

Summary
The main points in this chapter are:

Your negotiations must be clearly tied to your research plans. You should have a good idea of what facilities and resources will be necessary for you to execute your plan.
Ask for those items that you will need to begin your research program.
Understand the constraints (budget, space) under which the department operates and be flexible enough to work within them.

A Final Word...
Now that we've examined most of the basics of the academic job search process, it's probably a good idea to give an overall summary of the important points.

General Summary
During the application process, you are trying to convey your technical competance. Your application materials should include a cover letter, a c.v., and a Statement of Research and Teaching Objectives, all of which must be meticulously examined for grammar and spelling. You should attempt to properly frame your achievements in the c.v., and to adequately describe your future plans in the Statement of Objectives. It's very important to give alot of thought to your goals and objectives, because they will come up at every stage of the job search process. Also of importance is the cover letter, since it can be used to discuss how you fit the job description. Get your application materials in promptly! There will be many applicants for a single position, so it is important that you don't miss any deadlines.

During the interview process, you are trying to demonstrate your communication skills. You do this by discussing your current and future research thoughtfully and intelligently. Your seminar is a showcase for your communication abilities, so you should polish your seminar as much as possible. You must remember your audience during the seminar, and use your excellent communication skills so that every audience member, regardless of their area, comes away with some new information about your problem. In addition to teaching people during your seminar, you must convince the people you meet that your future research plans are both important and feasible. You do this by thinking them through very thoroughly ahead of time. Know the literature and background information. Understand the problems involved and what it takes to solve them. Be able to make others understand what the problems are, why they are important, and how you plan to solve them.

During the negotiation process, you are trying to obtain the necessary ingredients to a successful research program. Of particular importance are the research-oriented start-up items, like graduate student support, lab space, and research funds. Again, you need to think about the types of items you will need to effectively start your research program. What are the important pieces of lab equipment you will need to get started? How many graduate students will you need? Your initial goals should be aggressive enough to be relevant and interesting, but modest enough that you don't need huge amounts of overhead (money, time, space, or graduate students) to accomplish them.

The academic job search process is not a discrete event in your graduate student career. Rather, it is a continually evolving and occuring process. As a graduate student interested in an academic career, you should continually be developing the experience which will aid you in future endeavors. You should also be developing your vision, which will allow you to have a fruitful career as a researcher. You should be developing your communication skills so that you can effectively describe your goals and aspirations. If you start early, and consider all of the things we have talked about in this document, you have a good start at finding a job. However, don't stop your quest for knowledge here. Check out the references for more information and resources about your job search and academic careers in general. This guide should not be your only source of information on the subject. Examine other references, and talk to people. The more information you possess, the easier your job search will be.

Acknowledments
Many people have contributed to this document, in a variety of ways. We would like to thank the following faculty members from the Purdue School of Mechanical Engineering: Dr. Frank Incropera, Head, for his insights into the role of the department head in the hiring process and the importance of having ``vision''; Dr. Matthew Franchek, for his help with the role of the search committee, as well as playing the ``mock interviewer'' in our seminar presentation; Dr. Steven Frankel, for his views on the search committee duties. Doctoral student Paul Rullkoeter contributed the chapter on the academic resume and the application materials. Graduate students supplying excellent questions for the personal interviews with the above mentioned faculty include Paul Rullkoeter, Gang Xu, Pete Laz, and Dave Nickel. Chris Taylor provided the internet version of this document and handled the translation.

Sample Interview Questions
As mentioned in the main body of this handbook, preparation is the key to a successful interview. One excellent way to prepare for the interview is to anticipate the questions that you will be asked. Some of the ``typical'' interview questions that we have gathered are listed below. We thank Dr. Dulcy Abraham from the School of Civil Engineering at Purdue University for allowing us to use this list.

Would you describe your research at such a level that a non-expert could understand?
What is the fundamental contribution of your research to your field?
How does your research fit in with the work that others are doing/have done?
What is your vision for creating a research program here?
Do you plan to seek research funds, and if so, from whom?
What is the current funding record in your field? Who are the most active and interested funding sources?
Can you incorporate undergraduates in your research?
...on teaching...

What would you change in the undergraduate/graduate curriculum?
Are you a good teacher?
If you could teach any coure, what would it be?
Many of our students are more/less talented than those you are used to at your present institution. How successful will you be with them?
What do you think is the proper balance between teaching and research?
...on advising...

Would you be able to take on a student immediately?
How will you encourage students to major in our field?
Do you feel comfortable taking on graduate students in the current employment environment?
...in general...

How will you enhance our department?
Are you willing to be involved in committee work?
Why are you interested in our school?
Who else is interviewing you?
What do you do in your spare time? (what spare time?...)
You should also be ready to ask lots of questions. It is important to ask questions about the things you see when you are there. That would include lab facilities, computational resources, undergraduate labs, etc. But here is a list, also from Dr. Abraham, of questions you should be prepared to ask.

What undergraduate and graduate courses would be my responsibility?
How often are the course load assignments changed?
What is the typical teaching load?
Who is involved in the curriculum development decisions, and how are they made?
How are committee members selected?
What sort of committee work should I expect during the first few years?
What is the average number of hours per week spent on committee work?
What are the bases for promotion and tenure?
What percentage of the faculty are currently tenured?
What is the percentage of tenure track faculty that have been promoted recently?
What is the rate of and what are the reasons for faculty turnover?
How active are the faculty members in national organizations, professional societies, etc.?
Can you describe the travel budget for a junior faculty?
What are the undergraduate and graduate admission requirements?
What is the cost of living in the community?
What are the cultural opportunities in the community?
What is the current direction of the department?

References
Alley, M., ed. (1987) , The Craft of Scientific Writing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Benjaminson, P. (1992) , Publish Without Perishing--A Practical Handbook for Academic Authors, National Education Association of the United States.
Beveridge, W. E. B. (???) , The Art of Scientific Investigation, ???
Bolles, R. N. (1995) , What Color is Your Parachute?, Ten Speed Press.
Booth, V., ed. (1985) , Communicating in Science: Writing and Speaking, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Buxton, C. E. (1956) , College Teaching--A Psychologist's View, Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Carter, S. P., ed. (1987) , Writing for Your Peers--The Primary Journal Paper, Praeger, New York.
Dantzig, J. A. (1995) , `Landing an academic job: The process and the pitfalls', available at http://quattro.me.uiuc.edu/~jon.
Feibelman, P.J. (1993) , A Ph.D. is Not Enough!, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York.
Hairston, M.C. (1986) , Successful Writing, second edn, W. W. Norton and Company, New York.
Kalas, J.W. (1987) , The Grant System, State University of New York Press.
MacKenzie, D.R. and Nye, J.C. (1978) , `How to apply for an academic position', Louisianna State University Agricultural Center. Information Series No. 1.
Moxley, J.M., ed. (1992) , Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors, University Press of America.
Peterson, P.L. and Walberg, H.J., eds (1979) , Research on Teaching--Concepts, Findings, and Implications, McCutchan Publishing.
Reis, J.B. and Leukefeld, C.G. (1995) , Applying for Research Funding--Getting Started and Getting Funded, SAGE Publications.
Skinner, B.F. (1968) , The Technology of Teaching, Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Tomlinson, T.M. and Walberg, H.J. (1986) , Academic Work and Educational Excellence--Raising Student Productivity, McCutchan Publishing Corporation.
Wankat, P.C. and Oreovicz, F.S. (1983) , `The graduate student's guide to academic job hunting', Chemical Engineering Education Vol. 17, pp. 178--181.
Wankat, P.C. and Oreovicz, F.S. (1993) , Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Whicker, M.L., Kronenfeld, J.J. and Strickland, R.A. (1993), Getting Tenure (Volume Eight in the ``Survival Skills for Scholars'' Series), SAGE Publications.
White, V.P. (1975) , Grants--How to Find Out About Them and What to Do Next, Plenum Press, New York.
Woodford, F.P., ed. (1968) , Scientific Writing for Graduate Students--A Manual on the Teaching of Scientific Writing, The Rockefeller University Press, New York.

About this document ...
The ASEE Student Chapter Academic Job Search Handbook-- a Collection of Resources and Useful Information

This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 95.1 (Fri Jan 20 1995) Copyright © 1993, 1994, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds.

Thursday, July 07, 2005

 

Some notes on Software Job Searching - 2

1.
From http://blog.mattgoyer.com/stories/ftjobintinseattle.html

Executive Summary
Interviewing is time consuming, tiring, and a lot of work. But the reward for doing well is a full time job. Treat the whole process as a game and have a good time.

And don't give up. It took me a long time to get an interview with Amazon and I have failed at the Microsoft interview process before so keep at it.

What else?


Be well prepared, study hard. Buy books. Talk to friends.
Aggressively pursue interview opportunities. They rarely come to you.
Make sure you can perform well with little to no sleep.
Know what they want. Ensure that's what you want. Then show you have that.
Enjoy the game/process.
Contact HR if you haven't heard from them (see JC Oct 6).
Be enthusiastic.
No two interview experiences are alike. Prepare for anything and everything.
Research shows that the interviewer makes up their mind in the first thirty seconds that they meet you. See Malcom Gladwell, What do job interviews really tell us?
Don't have a cover letter.
Be honest with yourself and your interviewers.
You can find more interview stuff on my interviewing wiki.


Finding a full time job in Seattle
How did I get two full time job offers from two great companies? The answer is: a lot of hard work and preparation.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are my own and not those of any past, present, or future employers. Also, your interview experience mileage may vary.


Getting the interviews
I started the full time job hunt before school started in September. The list of companies I was targetting was short; Microsoft & Amazon.
Seeing as my girlfriend, Natalie, had a full time unaccepted offer from Amazon it was not hard for her to get me into the process there. Unfortunately it took a while to get the ball rolling but I did eventually get my first phone interview. Now keep in mind, that prior to Natalie receiving her offer and getting me into their system and I had worked hard to be interviewed by Amazon. I had submitted my resume online and had friends working there refer me, but it was because of Natalie's inside connections and unaccepted offer that I got the interview. Of course, I am not in Waterloo's co-op system which makes it very hard to get co-op or full time offers from companies who use the co-op system.

I never blogged about it, but I have hinted about it, but I interviewed with Microsoft in the Spring of 2003 for a program manager position. The reason I never blogged about it was because I never got past the phone screen. It was a very depressing experience. Regardless, I had several in's at Microsoft and I got them all to either put my resume into their resume system or to personally refer my resume to the Waterloo recruiter. I also submitted my resume in the bins at the co-op building in response to the full time posting on the just graduated version of Access. But what I really think secured my first interview at Microsoft was that I attended their info session here on campus and waited till everyone had harassed the recruiter and I then moved in. To make my resume stand out I had circled all the relevant bits. (Though she did make fun of me for circling them, but since it was the resume that all my interviewers later had in front of them, I consider the exercise to have been a successful one). I thought it might get the conversation rolling and it did. The conversation lasted about five minutes and felt quite gruelling. She even asked me to give her a 30 second pitch as to why Microsoft should hire me.

Moral of the story: You need a personal in or some sort of human contact. We're convinced those resume@ or online resume things are blackholes.


Preparation
In addition to aggressively pursuing job interviews I also aggressively prepared for the job interviews I hoped I was going to get. I prepared because I know other people prepare and I expected that employers likely expected candidates to be prepared. To prepare I bought Programming Interviews Exposed (PIE) because a new hire at Amazon told me most of her questions were straight from the book. PIE is also the number six book on the Amazon Purchase Circle. Now, why would someone who has a job at Amazon buy a book on interviews unless they were using it as a guide for conducting interviews? Note, the book contains errors. I found at least one, and some of their solutions are not as elegant as they could be. So, do not memorize the answers.

I also bought a copy of How Would You Move Mount Fuji? because I was convinced that the reason I failed at the Microsoft interview game in the spring of 2003 was because I choked on an easy brain teaser. While you do not want to regurgitate answers you've memorized you do want to be familiar with the different classes of problems and the corresponding frameworks for solving them. If you do get a question you know, tell the interviewer.

So, I read both books cover to cover and did all the proposed exercises. I also visited a lot of interviewing websites. One I spent a lot of time at was Techinterview.org where I worked through all 71 brain teasers.

In addition to this preparation I wrote my own 20 page study guide which covered C, C++, Java, computer architecture and object oriented design. It was also helpful that I was taking both CS 454, Distributed Systems and CS 456, Networks.

For the two months leading up to my interviews every spare moment during the day and on the weekends was spent preparing. I read a lot and I did a lot of problems. In fact during one power outage we got out the Mount Fuji book and we all worked through a couple problems by candle light.


Initial interview screens
But you can only prepare so long before you have to show that you have what it takes.
At Amazon I was interviewing for a Software Design Engineer position. While what I really wanted to do was be a Program Manager, Amazon does not recruit technical candidates into that position straight out of college.

On my interview wiki you can read all about my first Amazon phone interview which I felt went really well. My second one did not go so well. I felt I really choked on some of the questions. Of course everyone tells you that the process of how you answer a question is more important than the answer but you can't help but feel dumb for not getting questions that as a Computer Science grad you should get. But after a sufficiently long delay I got the good news that they would be flying me down.

At Microsoft I was interviewing for a Program Manager position. My initial screen was a thirty minute on campus interview. It went really well. He even had a copy of the same resume that I had circled up. This lead him to ask questions about stuff that wasn't circled which was fun.

After finding out Amazon was ready to fly me down I got in contact with Microsoft and got the good news that they too wanted me to fly down to Seattle. I arranged to fly down Thursday, October 30th with Microsoft and Amazon sharing the expense of getting me down there and taking care of my hotel. They put me up at the swanky, and very noir, Hotel W.


In Seattle
Now on the flight down I made the mistake of sleeping. Once I got to Seattle I could not sleep. So I spent the night tossing, turning, and continually calling the front desk to get my wake up call changed. Moral of the story: don't sleep on the flight down.
I got up around 6am even though my interview was at 10:30. I had breakfast and spent the morning chilling on the sofa listening to my iPod trying to relax. I eventually got in a cab and made the trip up to the Pac Med building. I was early so I spent ten minutes outside enjoying the sun and listening to music.


Interviewing at Amazon
My interview process at Amazon was six and a half hours. I was met by HR and she took me to the meeting room where I'd spend my day. At Amazon the interviewers come to you. She also gave me a schedule of my interviewers. Here were my questions:

This is by no means an extensive list of the questions I was asked.. It is just the ones I could remember.


10:30 - 11:00 - Technical Recruiter
Usual HR questions
11:00 - 12:00 - Web Developer
Discuss the UI problems of a previous project, how would you resolve them now?
Why is it easy to collaborate on a document in person but hard on the web?
How are requests handled in Resin (or a Java servlet container in general)
How does dynamic recompilation work in Resin (or any other Java servlet container)
12:00 - 1:00 - Technical Program Manager
Lunch
How would you improve Amazon?
1:00 - 2:00 - Team Lead
How much would you charge to wash all the windows in Seattle?
What was your worst group experience?
What is one good thing your last manager would say about you?
What is one bad thing your last manager would say about you?
Talk about tablet PCs and Amazon. What does Amazon need to be aware of?
2:00 - 3:000 - Team Lead
Reverse a linked list
Write a function that returns a node in a tree given two parameters: pointer to the root node and the inorder traversal number of the node we want to return. The only information stored in the tree is the number of children for each node.
3:00 - 4:00 - Software Development Engineer
Calculate an infix expression. This question later evolved into calculate a postfix expression
What objects are required in a restaurant reservation system
4:00 - 4:50 - Senior Developer (Bar Raiser)
Given a distributed system with many clients and many servers where the servers each export a different set of services and each have a different amount of computing power discuss the data structures used in a router to perform load balancing.
Write a function that given a list of items and weights return a random item in the list taking the weights into account.
Now write a O(log(n)) function
Many of them, while not straight from PIE, were similar and I was thankful I had prepared for linked lists and trees. I was however, thrown by a question on evaluating infix and postfix expressions. Of course after the interview I remembered that I had seen postfix in first year and then remembered how to solve them. What triggered this memory was a second year was in one of the labs loudily talking to her friends about trying to find an algorithm to solve postfix questions. I told her I had only had thirty minutes to answer the question and so she had better remember the answer once she Google'd for it because it might come back to haunt her in a full time job interview like it did with me.

Something that makes Amazon's interviews unique is that they have you interview with a 'bar raiser' whose job it is to ensure that you are better than the average Amazon employee so that the talent bar is continually being raised. It was clear from my schedule who my bar raiser was though I felt I had a bad experience with my bar raiser. I just didn't feel like we had much of a rapport.


Hanging out in Seattle
I was thoroughly exhausted and wiped out after my Amazon experience so my friend Ming who was interning with Amazon drove me back to my hotel and I crashed. Two hours later I met him for dinner. It was Halloween and we were way under dressed but after dinner we ran into a bunch of other Waterloo kids who gave us Mardi Gras beads. Not much of a costume, but better than nothing. We then drank and partied the night away.

Saturday Ming and I went to see the play 21 Dog Years: Doing Time at Amazon.com. A very fitting play. After the play we went to U-Dubs university plaza to gawk at all the high end big box malls. The highlight was visiting the Apple Store.

Later on, we tracked down a sushi dinner, and then another Waterloo intern, Francis, and we went to the U-District but it just wasn't happening. Oh well.

Sunday I spent the day trying to do a programming assignment for Networks. Unfortunately I chose the wrong language, didn't have the text, and I had no idea what was going on.. It did not go well. But I ended up taking a late, getting it mostly done, and got 70% so it turned out okay.

Again, I couldn't sleep Sunday before my big day at Microsoft. At 6:30 I woke up, showered, ironned, ate, and at 7:15 got in a town car headed to Redmond.


Interviewing at Microsoft
I arrived early to the Microsoft interviewing building, filled out my forms, and sat and watched all the other nervous candidates trickle in for their 8:30 appointments. A number of other students were called up before me, but then it was my chance. The day started with HR.
This is by no means a comprehensive list but it highlights some of the bigger questions. I got a lot of repeats of the usual questions like:

Where do you want to be in 2-5+ years?
Why Microsoft?
Why PM?
Talk about past experiences, what would you do differently?
The day started at 8:30.


HR
Introduction to how the day will work
General HR type questions
PM - Windows Media Player
How would we design Windows Media Player to run on a TV
Talk about putting a 1.5 mile runway on a 1 mile by 1 mile plot of land
What are the differences between C and C++
Explain Object Oriented programming to your grandmother
You have 6 months to do a 9 month project. What do you do?
PM - Windows Media Player
Why don't you use Windows Media Player?
What are 4 improvements you would make to Windows Media Player 9?
Prioritize them
You do not have enough time to do them all, now what?
I now cut all those improvements and ask you to do something you do not want to do, how do you react?
Talk about Windows Media Guide, how do we make it more relevant?
Talked about a lesson learned from a past experience, how do you apply that lesson today?
PM (lunch) - eHome
Design a 1m x 1m bathroom
Teach me how to sail
What was your most difficult project?
How have you demonstrated leadership at a previous company?
PM - eHome
Demo'd the technology of one of the teams I was interviewing with
Talked about a problem with a Microsoft product and brainstormed ways of resolving it
We talked about the future of the technology and some of the problems they currently have
Head PM - Windows Media Player

What haven't you been asked?
Asked a brainteaser about tribes and people being marked and having to jump to their deaths. It's a logic puzzle. I might have only been asked this because I answered that I had not been asked any brain teasers for the above question.
How do you motivate developers?
Urged me to ask *any* questions about Microsoft (salary,...)
'As appropriate' - Executive for Outlook
We are a car company and want to make our key fobs our competitive advantage / the reason why people buy our cars. Talk about a framework for evaluating ideas and then generate some.
Where do you want to be in five years?
If you were an absentee landlord how would you take care of your house?
How do you handle renting to friends?
What advances are we going to see ten years from now? What are the impacts?
Talked a lot about my goals and future. Lots of drilling deep down into them.
HR
Recap of how the day went
What would lead me to choose Amazon over Microsoft? Microsoft over Amazon?
Talked about what happens next
Dinner w/Microsoft employee of my choice (Robert Scoble)
Dinner person was not in on the 'interview loop'
What makes the Microsoft interview process unique is that as the candidate you do not know your interview schedule beforehand and that at each step of the way the interviewers are communicating with each other. This means that if you have a few bad interviews in a row your day could end very early. Conversely, if your interviews go well then at the end of the day you will get an 'as appropriate' interview which is typically with a general manager or executive. So at the end of each interview the interviewer will send you back to the building's lobby for ten to twenty minutes while they go talk to the next interviewer. Each interview was in the office of the person interviewing me except for the lunch interview. All my interviews were in the same building except for my last. I knew it was the as appropriate because my interviewer told me my day was done and then double checked this but exclaimed that I had another interview. He wrote down the details and I went back to the lobby and got on a bus. At the new building the front desk people called up to tell them I was there and it was clear that they were talking to an executive assistant. But it went well and I really enjoyed the opportunity to be grilled by the general manager of Outlook.

I think that Microsoft's Program Manager interviews are difficult to prepare for so I think what you should do to prepare is know what to expect, that way there are at least fewer surprises.

What also made this interview experience unique is that before I got to Seattle they asked if there was anyone I wanted to have dinner with. Wanting to take advantage of this I chose Robert Scoble as my dinner date. I met him at Anthony's in Kirkland and had a nice dinner with him and his wife. In hindsight, I was a little too tired to do dinner but whatever.

I got back to my hotel around 9:00pm, met Ming, had a drink, and then packed while watching a bad movie.

Final word of advice.. During my last HR interview I was asked why I would choose Amazon over Microsoft and I was quite honest. Later on Microsoft went out of their way to ensure that the reasons I listed would no longer be valid. So be honest and tell them what you want.


What are they looking for?
I'll disclaim that I do not know what they are looking for. This is just what I think they are looking for.


Programming questions
Asks clarifying questions
Doesn't start coding immediately
Rejects bad input
Checks boundary cases
Efficiency
Cleverness
Design questions
Asks: Who, what, why, where, when, how
Thinks outside the box
Tests the design
Sells the design
Brain teasers
Doesn't back down
Explores all avenues
Challenges assumptions
In general
The best. These companies interview a lot of really good people. You need to stand out as the best. If your work or school experience doesn't make you stand out then pursue something in your spare time that will.
Persuasive. If you can't sell yourself and your ideas how will you then sell the companies products?
Well spoken.
Confident.
Relaxed.
Can work on a whiteboard in front of an audience.
Verbalizes thought processes while working through problems.
Can I put this candidate in front of a customer? A partner? an executive?

Differences between Microsoft and Amazon
At Amazon you get a fixed interview schedule. At Microsoft you don't which means they can cut you at any time.
At Amazon interviewers do not talk about you until after your interview day, while at Microsoft they communicate either in person or via email after each of your interviews. One of my friends describes it like this:
At Amazon, interviewer feedback is getting inputted into an application and will be discussed by the interviewers individually and is not read by the others until a later date (at least that's what they told me) BUT Microsoft, each person scheduled for your loop (they have a schedule while you don't..) is emailed feedback as the day progresses (thus the 10-15 minute breaks between interviews) and are liable to discuss previous interview[er]s and with you. From what I understand, this is especially used if they think they find a weakness -- subsequent interviews will drill down to confirm/deny it's existence. It also makes you think that there really is no "fist impression" other than you very first interview of the day...
So the Microsoft interview is similar to the adaptive testing used in GMAT/GRE tests. Meaning, first impressions are crucial.
At Amazon you stay put in one meeting room all day. At Microsoft you interview in each interviewer's offices.
At Amazon you don't get a break between interviews. At Microsoft I got 10-20 minute breaks between some.
At Microsoft you'll interview with two specific groups. At Amazon it's less clear.
Microsoft is known to ask brain teasers


Similarities

Both companies do a great job of making the process of interviewing painless. When I went to check out of the Hotel W I was all ready for them to charge hundreds of dollars (food there was not cheap) of room charges to my card but 'Microsoft has taken care of all that sir'.
Both companies want you to succeed. I used to have the impression that the Microsoft interview was all about tearing apart the interviewee but HR at both companies made it clear that they want the interview process to highlight the interviewee's strengths not magnify their weaknesses.
Both companies are looking for similar things.
Both companies will test you.

Conclusion
Interviewing is time consuming, tiring, and a lot of work. But the reward for doing well is a full time job. Treat the whole process as a game and have a good time.

And don't give up. It took me a long time to get an interview with Amazon and I have failed at the Microsoft interview process before so keep at it.

...I accepted the offer from Microsoft. I start February 2004 working as a 'program manager' in their Media Center division. Yay!

What else?


Be well prepared, study hard. Buy books. Talk to friends.
Aggressively pursue interview opportunities. They rarely come to you.
Make sure you can perform well with little to no sleep.
Know what they want. Then show you have that.
Enjoy the game.
Contact HR if you haven't heard from them (see JC Oct 6).
Be enthusiastic.
No two interview experiences are alike. Prepare for anything and everything.
Research shows that the interviewer makes up their mind in the first thirty seconds that they meet you.
Don't have a cover letter.
Be honest with yourself and your interviewers.
You can find more interview stuff on my interviewing wiki.

Reference Link
http://wiki.mattgoyer.com/Wiki.jsp?page=Interviewing
http://www.gladwell.com/2000/2000_05_29_a_interview.htm

2.
From http://johncormie.blogspot.com/2003_10_01_johncormie_archive.html#106549338185078311

Thursday afternoon I flew to Seattle for my job interview with Microsoft. Kudos to them for making the trip so painless. The flight, hotel, rental car was all arranged. And even though I didn't have a direct flight, there was virtually no waiting at the United hub in Chicago -- I stepped off one plane and onto the next. Future candidates, I have to recommend taking the rental car transportation option over the taxi. Getting from the airport to the hotel to the campus by car is really easy and following driving directions is a good way to take your mind off the stress of the upcoming interview for a bit. Also Redmond is so suburban -- you need a car to go anywhere -- like finding a place to eat dinner for example. 10AM, Building 19, Met with my (third) recruiter contact, Jenna. She was very nice, gave off the impression that she wanted me to succeed, and gave the standard technical interview tips: ask questions, think out loud, yada yada. After that she put me on the shuttle to do the interview circuit, first with .NET compact framework, then with Visual Studio for Devices. Since I didn't totally bomb out, I "survived" until the 5th (as appropriate) interview at about 5pm. Here's a pretty complete list of the questions I got asked during the day
As a busy student, how do you keep up to date with technology developments in industry?
What was the last technology that you heard of and thought 'that's really cool'? 'uncool'?
Suppose you're locked in a building and can't leave. How many ways can you think of to measure the exterior temperature?
Resume related questions: Fairtunes, C&O, Waterloo.
How can you prevent deadlock in a concurrent system?
Write a function to add 64 bit numbers using 32bit arithmetic.
What is a thread? What is a process?
Write a function that, given an alphabetic string, outputs the characters a) sorted b) duplicates removed and c) in lower case. Do it using only a few (<26) bytes of storage. (eg: "Mississippi" -> "imps")
Insert into a circular doubly linked list.
A square island, with side length n meters, lies in the center of a square pond, with side length n+2 meters. Given only two boards of length 0.99 meters, how can you reach the island from the mainland?
ASCII strings are typically encoded using 1 byte per character, even though for alphanumeric text, only the first 7 bits are used (the MSB is always 0). Write a function that compresses a c string by outputting a string of bytes where each group of seven bits represents each character of input. For example, the 3 byte string 01111111, 01011100, 00000101 would compress to the 21 bit string 111111110111000000101.
itoa() (He first suggested "reverse the word ordering in a string", then malloc()/free())
Tell me about a time your beliefs were challenged in the workplace.
Tell me about a time when you discovered a fundamental error in the design of your project.
Design and implement the "shuffle" function for a 200 disc CD changer. Your only constraint is that no song may be repeated until every other song has been played once.
At the end of the day, I drove back to the hotel and went to sleep, wanting never to think about programming again. I felt happy to have survived the experience, but I don't feel like I came off as being that stellar. We'll see what happens.

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